1 Shot: A shot with one character in the frame.
1080p or 1080i: High-definition (HD) video that has 1080 lines of vertical resolution. When followed by “p”, it refers to progressive scan HD video. When followed by “i”, it refers to interlaced scan HD video.
16:9: Refers to the screen ratio used to create a letterbox style frame.
180 Degree Rule: Keeping camera angles on one side of an imaginary line running through the set. Crossing the line can cause confusing discontinuity.
2 Shot: A shot frequently used when two subjects are in a frame. Often framed face-on to one subject with the the back of the second subjects head still in shot.
3 Point Lighting: A common lighting set up featuring three lights; key light, fill light and hair light.
4 Point Lighting: A typical lighting composition using four lights; key light, fill light, hair light and backlight.
4K: 4K resolution, also called 4K, refers to a horizontal screen display resolution in the order of 4,000 (3840 x 2160) pixels.
4:4:2 (and 4:4:4): Chroma sampling rates. 4:4:4 means that the colour and luminance components of the picture are sampled at the same rate, as is performed in cinematic postproduction. With 4:2:2, the two chroma components are sampled at half the rate of the luminance components; this reduces bandwidth by one-third with little or no visible difference.
720p: High-definition (HD) video that has 720 lines of vertical resolution. The “p” refers to progressive scan HD video.
A/B Testing: Comparing two versions of content to determine which would perform best. For example: changing the wording of an email, or the images on a website and comparing which versions perform best.
A/V Screenplay Format: Industry script format that splits picture and audio into two columns so that visuals can be described with their corresponding dialog, music, and sound FX displayed side by side. Commonly used for corporate video and commercials.
Above the Fold: In the context of banner ad placement, above the fold generally refers to a banner placement on a web page that can be viewed without scrolling either horizontally or vertically. Most online ad networks define suitable above the fold placement as within 500 or 600 pixels of the top of the page.
AC: The abbreviation for Alternating Current.
Access: Your ability to get up close and inside the world of your subject. This is the golden ticket to film making.
Account: An Internet video term referring to online video websites that have a Sign Up function for users to upload their video content.
Across the Board: A program that is broadcast at the same time period every day.
Active Sharing: A YouTube feature that allows users to see who is watching a video at the same time as them.
AD: The abbreviation for Assistant Director. A film position similar to that of a production assistant.
Ad: An abbreviation for advertisement.
ADA: Abbreviation for Americans with Disabilities Act. An act regarding the universal accessibility of online video productions.
Ad Copy: See script
Ad Lib: A term which refers to spontaneous or unscripted on screen action. It can refer to both oral and physical action.
Ad Network: Ad networks (advertising network, banner network, online ad network) are advertising companies which administer ad sales, billing, serving and collection for web sites. Ad networks often aggregate sites into specific categories or demographic groups, then sell ad inventory to advertisers either to specific sites within the networks, specific categories or demographics, or via run of network buys which target sites within the network. Ad networks can sell ad inventory on CPM, CPC, CPA and other revenue models. A reviewed list of ad networks can be found here at Internet Ad Sales.
Ad Planner: A website from which product images, logos, and other national advertising materials may be downloaded by regional or local affiliates. Common in automotive advertising.
ADR: Abbreviation of the term Additional Dialogue Recording.
Ad Server: A third-party system composed of powerful server hardware, ad serving software, and a powerful internet connection, used by advertisers and web publishers for rapid and reliable display of online advertisements. An important component of ad servers is independent tracking of ad display and click information. Many ad networks, including Burst and Fastclick, offer separately licensed versions of their own ad servers which may be used by web publishers who manage some or all of their own advertising sales rather than outsourcing to ad networks.
Advance Organizer: A preview of a program’s content designed to ready the viewer for the information to follow.
Ad Views: The number of times a specific ad has been displayed. Many ad networks sell advertising using a CPM model, in which ads are purchased and web publishers reimbursed at a fixed rate per thousand impressions.
Advertising Allowance: Money paid/reimbursed, or discount given by a wholesaler to a retailer for the advertising costs of a product.
Advertising Budget: The money set aside within a company’s overall budget to cover advertising and marketing costs.
Advertising Campaign: A group of advertisements, commercials, and related promotional materials and activities that are designed to be used during the same period of time as part of a coordinated advertising plan to meet the specified advertising objectives of a client.
Advertising Claim: A statement made in advertising about the benefits, characteristics, and/or performance of a product or service designed to persuade the customer to make a purchase.
Advertising Plan: See Marketing Plan
Advertising Research: A systematic process of marketing research conducted to improve the efficiency of advertising.
AdWords: Google AdWords is an online advertising service developed by Google, where advertisers pay to display brief advertising copy, product listings, and video content within the Google ad network to web users.
Aerial: See Aerial Photography/Aerial Videography.
Aerial Photography/Aerial Videography: The activity or technique of photographing the earth’s surface from an aircraft, rocket, etc
Affiliate: A broadcast station that grants a network an option of specific times for broadcasting network programming in return for compensation.
Affiliate Marketing: A type of performance-based marketing in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought by the affiliate’s own marketing efforts.
Affiliate Network: Acts as an intermediary between publishers (affiliates) and merchant affiliate programs. It allows website publishers to more easily find and participate in affiliate programs which are suitable for their website (and thus generate income from those programs), and allows websites offering affiliate programs (typically online merchants) to reach a larger audience by promoting their affiliate programs to all of the publishers participating in the affiliate network.
After Effects: A 2D animation application created by Adobe.
AFTRA: The American Federation of TV and Radio Artists.
Agate Line: Newspaper advertising space one column wide by one-fourteenth of an inch deep; often referred to simply as “line”; somewhat obsolete because most newspapers now use “column inch”measurements of advertising space, especially for national advertising.
AGC: Abbreviation of the term Auto Gain Control. This is a camera feature, which allows filmmakers to automatically adjust their sound levels.
Agency Commission: Usually 15 percent, allowed to advertising agencies by media on the agencies’ purchase of media space or time.
Agency of Record: Advertising agency that coordinates an advertiser’s promotion of several products handled by more than a single agency (see Blanket contract).
Agency Recognition: Acknowledgment by media owners that certain advertising agencies are good credit risks and/or fulfill certain requirements, thus qualifying for a commission.
Aggregation: A concept of market segmentation that assumes that most consumers are alike.
Algorithm: A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer. A process used often by search engines and other advertising and marketing mediums.
Air Check: Recording a broadcast to serve as an archival or file copy.
Airtime: An Americanism used to refer to the duration of Television programming.
Allocation: A sorting process that consists of breaking a homogeneous supply down into smaller and smaller lots.
Alpha Channel: A unit of transparency preserved in certain types of video and image files. An alpha channel enables easy layering of visual elements.
Alpha Compositing: The process of combining an image with a background to create the appearance of partial transparency. An alpha channel is used extensively when combining computer-rendered image elements with live footage.
Ambassador: The traditional name for a liaison who communicates between film crew and the area/community/culture they wish to film.
Ambient Noise: Background sound.
American Research Bureau (ARB): One of several national firms engaged in radio and television research; the founder of Arbitron ratings.
Amp: An Amp is an electrical unit of measurement.
Analytics: The discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data.
Anamorphic: A standard definition 4:3 aspect ratio video that has been modified to a 16:9 aspect ratio. Anamorphic video airing on SD televisions will always have a black letterbox.
Animated GIF: A graphic image in GIF (graphical interchange format) format composed of multiple layers which display in turn, providing the illusion of motion. A large percentage of non rich-media banner ads are in animated GIF format. Animated GIF banners have historically generated higher click-through rates than static images. However, as web users have grown more mature, some studies indicate that blinking or flashing images are more often automatically ignored, as users have come to assume that any animated image on a page is an advertisement.
Animatic: A preliminary version of a movie, commercial, or video
Announcement: An advertising message that is broadcast between programs (see Station break, Participation, Billboard), or an advertisement within a syndicated program or feature film; any broadcast commercial regardless of time length, within or between programs, that presents an advertiser’s message or a public service message.
Annotations: A YouTube tool that allows users to place plain-text notes and web video links into their YouTube videos.
Aperture Ring: This is the adjustable ring on a cameras lens that allows for exposure control.
Approach: An Approach refers to how a story, documentary or narrative is told on screen.
Archival Footage: Archived Footage can refer to Images, Music and Film Clips, which are taken from fair-use Libraries for videos and films.
Area of Dominant Influence (ADI): The geographic area surrounding a city in which the broadcasting stations based in that city account for a greater share of the listening or viewing households than do broadcasting stations based in other nearby cities.
ASA: Abbreviation for Advertising Standards Authority.
ASCAP: The American Federation of TV and Radio Artists.
Aspect Ratio: Aspect Ratio denotes the shape of your image. Typically there are two traditional ratios; 4 : 3 (TV) and 16 : 9 (Widescreen TV).
Assemble Edit: To string together video segments recording each audio, video and control tracks.
Assets: See media Assets.
Assignment Editor: A cinematic role referring to a production job similar to that of a Print Editor.
Audience: Persons who receive an advertisement; individuals who read a newspaper or magazine, listen to a radio broadcast, view a television broadcast, and so on.
Audience Accumulation: The total number of different persons or households exposed to a single media vehicle over a period of time (see Cumulative audience.
Audience Composition: Audience analysis expressed in demographic terms or other characteristics.
Audience Duplication: Those persons or households who see an advertisement more than once in a single media vehicle or in a combination of vehicles.
Audience Flow: The movement of a broadcast audience’s attention from one station to another when the program changes, measured against the audience that stays tuned to the same station or network to view the new program.
Audience Profile: The minute-by-minute viewing pattern for a program; a description of the characteristics of the people who are exposed to a medium or vehicle.
Audience Turnover: That part of a broadcast audience that changes over time (see Audience flow).
Audio: Of or relating to the broadcasting or reproduction of sound.
Audio Swap: A YouTube function that allows users to add music to their video from YouTube’s music library.
Audimeter: A:C: Nielsen Company’s automatic device attached to radio or television receiving sets that records usage and station information (see People meter).
Augmented Reality: A new way of engaging with digital content where interactive, digital content can be accessed and viewing through real life objects in the real world.
Authoring: The process of creating DVD navigation. Includes menu design, button programming, etc.
Authoring Language: A computer programming language designed for producing computer-assisted instruction.
Autocue: A production tool used to provide a script on set for subjects to read.
Autogain Control: Commonly abbreviated as “AGC”. This is a camera feature that automatically adjusts sound levels for you.
Availability: A broadcast time period that is open for reservation by an advertiser in response to an advertiser’s or agency’s initial inquiry (slang “avail”).
Avatar: An Internet picture that represents an account, profile or person.
AVCHD: Advanced video coding high definition. A format for recording and playback of HD video onto removable flash media and hard drives. It uses the MPEG-4, H.264 video compression codec.
Average Audience: The number of broadcast homes that are tuned in for an average minute of a broadcast.
Average Exposure: The average (mean) number of times that each audience member has been exposed to an advertisement.
Average Net Paid Circulation: Average (mean) number of copies that a publication distributes per issue.
Average Page Depth: The average number of pages on a site that visitors view during a single session.
Average Response Value: The average revenue value of each click, calculated as total revenue divided by total clicks.
AVI: Audio video interleaved. An audio/video film format used during digital video editing frequently displayed as “.avi.”
AVID: An editing suite provider.
Axis: This is the imaginary line that is drawn in a scene. This line should always have the camera on one side and the subjects on the other.
B2B: B2B, or Business-to-Business, defines a business, often a web site, targeting other commercial entities rather than consumers. B2B web sites tend to generate significantly higher ad revenues that strictly consumer-oriented sites. Internet Ad Sales is a B2B web site, as the main target audiences of this site are professional, commercial web publishers and advertisers.
B2C (Business-to-Consumer): Companies that sell directly to consumers.
Backbone: A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.
Background Plates: The scenes, photos, or animations that are to be inserted as the background when compositing a greenscreen scene.
Backlight: A light used in filming traditionally placed behind the subject/character at a top left/top right angle. This set-up helps to separate your subject/character from the background.
Backlink: a link from some other website (the referrer) to that web resource (the referent). A web resource may be (for example) a website, web page, or web directory.
Back to Back: Two broadcast programs or commercials in succession rate: See Open rate.
Bagger: An American TV slang term used to refer to stock footage that can be played at any time.
Bait and Switch Advertising: The advertising of a product or service at an unusually low price with an intention to switch the customer to a higher priced item when the customer comes to the store to buy the advertised item. This practice is illegal if customers find it difficult or impossible to buy the advertised item.
Ban: Also known as Delisting. Refers to a punitive action imposed by a search engine in response to being spammed. Can be an IP address of a specific URL.
Bandwidth: How quickly you can send and receive information send through a connection. Usually measured in kilobits-per-second (Kbps.) Faster connection speeds, such as Cable, DSL, or Fiber Optic connections, are rated in megabits-per-second (Mbps).
Banner Exchange: An alternative to banner ads, a banner exchange provides the potential to draw extra traffic to a web site through banner displays and is a good way to fill unsold or on profitable inventory. The most common banner exchanges, such as Link Exchange, offer one banner display on some external web site in the network for every two banners displayed on one’s own web site. Most banner exchanges use 468×60 pixel standard banners, although there are a few pop-up banner exchanges and skyscraper exchanges.
Banner Ad: Banner and banner ad are generic terms describing the most common forms of online advertising, the 468×60 image or rich media ad displayed at the top of many commercial web sites, commonly used in conjunction with Skyscraper Ad’s, which are more vertically oriented.
Barn Doors: An American term referring to the metal flaps placed on traditional film lights. These Barn Doors help to focus lighting and protect those on set if the light should shatter.
Bars: Referring to Colour Bars that are used during filming to check video signals.
Bars and Tone: The industry standard reference tools for adjusting color and audio: SMPTE color bars and one kilohertz audio tone. It’s important to include bars and tone at the beginning of every media card, tape, and every finished project so that editors, projectionists, audio engineers, and other film and TV professionals know how to adjust your color and audio to accurately reproduce what you intended.
Barter: An advertising medium that sells time or space in return for merchandise or other non-monetary returns: also a television programming offer in which a station is offered a syndicated program in exchange for commercial positions within the program.
BCU or ECU: A big close-up or extreme close-up frames the head so that the top of frame clips the forehead or hairline and the bottom of frame clips the neck.
BEAT: This is a script term written in caps to indicate a wait or a PAUSE in the delivery of dialogue. It implies a reaction or some business intervenes between lines of dialogue.
Beta: An SD video tape format used as a broadcast standard in stations across the United States. Although still used today, it is slowly being replaced by digital video file transmission methods.
Betamax: A half-inch cassette standard developed by the Sony Corporation.
Bicycle: To distribute programs by sending them to a succession of locations.
Bid: A price quoted for an object or service.
Billboard (Internet): An Internet Billboard typically describes a large website graphic which is used within the header of a website, or rotating slideshow, these banners typically draw large amounts of attention due to their size and position within the website. Many advertisers use internet billboards to promote special offers within their own websites. Billboards which are animated using technology such as Flash, tend to draw have even higher clickthrough rates.
Billboard (outdoor): A large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large advertisements to passing pedestrians and drivers.
Billboard (TV): The final frame of a television commercial containing important branding and contact information such as logo, company and/or location photo or video, website, address, and/or telephone number.
Bin: An editing term used to refer to footage that won’t make the final cut, but still needs to be kept.
Bit Rate: This a unit of measurement used to assess the transfer of data per unit over time.
Blackwrap: Blackwrap is heavy-duty aluminum foil coated in a heat-resistant black paint. This is a typical tool of the lighting trade used to control the direction and exposure of light on set.
Blended SERP: This refers to the introduction of Google’s Universal Search in 2007 whereby images, videos, local businesses and news stories appear alongside traditional search results when a user searches for a particular query.
Blog – (weB Log): A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is “blogging” and someone who keeps a blog is a “blogger.” Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog.
Block: Referring to the A and B Blocks of prioritized footage in broadcasting.
Blocking: The establishing of positions and movements for talent on the set.
Blown Out: This is a typical film term referring to the extreme overexposure of video. If your images are Blown Out they will be irreparable and the footage will be worthless.
Blu-Ray: A High-definition disc format similar in size and operation to a DVD, but capable of holding eight times the data. Sony and Panasonic support Blu-Ray, while Microsoft and Toshiba support HD DVD.
Blue Screen: A chroma-keying technique where the subject is shot in front of a blue background and that background is replaced during post production.
BMI: Broadcast Music, Inc.
BNC: A commonly used video cable for monitors, projects and other audio/video equipment.
BNC Connector: A Broadcast standard video connector used with coax cable. A Single BNC connector is used for analog video. Multiple BNC connectors carry SDI or serial digital interface video.
Body Copy: The text of a piece of print advertising that provides more detailed information than provided by headlines and subheads.
Bokeh: A background so out of focus that it appears to be soft and cloudlike. Very narrow depth of field to draw attention to the main subject. It is obtained when using a digital still camera for video or when using a neutral density filter.
Bookends: A set of two 15s television commercials which are strategically scheduled with one at the beginning of the commercial break and one at the end of the commercial break.
Bounce Rate: The percentage of visitors to a particular website who navigate away from the site after viewing only one page.
Branching: A program style in which viewers are presented with or “branched to” different segments of the program, depending upon their responses.
Brand Identity: How a business presents itself to and wants to be perceived by its consumers.
Brand Image: The impression of a product held by real or potential consumers.
Branding: The process involved in creating a unique name and image for a product in the consumers’ mind, mainly through advertising campaigns.
Branding (TV): A television commercial promoting a company in and of itself rather than a specific product, offer, or sales event.
Branding Strategy: The attempt to develop a strong brand reputation on the web to increase brand recognition and create a significant volume of impressions.
Brand Mark: Part of a brand name that cannot be spoken. It most commonly is a symbol, picture, design, distinctive lettering, color, or a combination of these.
Brand Name: Name used to distinguish one product from its competitors. It can apply to a single product, an entire product line, or even a company.
Brand Penetration: When a company enters a market where its products already exist.
Breakaway Cables: This is a sound cable that connects two XLR cables and a headphone extension cable into one cable that connects between a camera and a mixer/microphone.
Broadband: Generally refers to connections to the Internet with much greater bandwidth than you can get with a modem. There is no specific definition of the speed of a “broadband” connection but in general any Internet connection using DSL or a via Cable-TV may be considered a broadband connection.
Broadcast Quality: Video and audio quality standards developed by the National Association of Broadcasters. Frequently used to describe a broadcast camera.
Broadcast-Quality Camera: A high-resolution video camera with three chips for each of the primary colours of light; red, blue, and green. Furthermore, a broadcast-quality camera allows for internal adjustments to achieve the best contrast and colour rendition possible.
Broadcast Safe Area: The inner 90% of a frame of video in which subjects are guaranteed to be seen by all viewers. The outer 10% can be lost due to the curvature of traditional television sets.
B-Roll: Supplemental or alternate footage intercut with main shots, audio, or music.
Browser: A Client program (software) that is used to look at various kinds of Internet resources. Examples include Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and Apple Safari.
Bucket: An associative grouping for related concepts, keywords, behaviors and audience characteristics associated with your company’s product or service. A “virtual container” of similar concepts used to develop PPC keywords, focus ad campaigns and target messages.
Buffering: An online video term referring to the downloading process of a video.
Bump-Down: A dub onto a smaller-format tape.
Bump-Up: A dub onto a larger-format tape.
Bus Drive: These are small high-capacity mini-hard drives that are powered by plugging them into a computer via a USB or FireWire cable. Because they don’t require AC power, they are an ideal choice for offloading HD video footage at remote locations and run-and-gun shooting.
Button Ad: A graphical advertising unit smaller than a banner ad. Also called a tile ad.
Buyer Persona: A fictional character created to represent a user type that might use a site, brand, or product in a similar way.
Call Letters: The letters that identify a station; for example, WBZ-TV.
Call to Action: A piece of content intended to induce a viewer, reader, or listener to perform a specific act, typically taking the form of an instruction or directive (e.g. buy now or click here ).
Camcorder: A combination video camera and recorder. Camcorders may record on videotape, DVDs, hard drives or flash cards.
Campaign: A specific coordinated advertising effort on behalf of a particular product or service for a specified period of time.
Cans: Film slang for industry standard headphones.
Captions: A web video term referring to subtitles on an Internet video.
Capture/Digitize: The process by which a computer converts video shot on tape to video files.
Car Card: Transit advertisement in or on a bus, subway, or commuter train car.
Card Rate: The cost of time or space on a rate card.
Carryover Effect: The residual level of awareness or recall after a flight or campaign period, used to plan the timing of schedules.
Cash Discount: A discount, usually 2 percent, by media to advertisers who pay promptly.
Casting: The process of finding talent or extras for a video production. May involve auditions.
Categories: A YouTube term used for putting web videos into specific genre areas.
Category Development Index (CDI): A comparative market-by-market measure of a market’s total sales of all brands of a single product category, used to evaluate the sales potential of a market for a product category or a brand (see Brand Development Index.
CATV: Community antenna television, an alternate name for cable distribution.
CC: The conclusion of a broadcast; for example, this program runs 11:30 pm:-CC. Center Spread: An advertisement appearing on two facing pages printed on a single sheet in the center of a publication (see Double Truck).
CCTV: Closed-circuit TV, or video distribution through receiving sites physically wired to the source.
CD-DA: Compact disc digital audio, The standard digital music CD format that is playable on all CD players.
CDN: An abbreviation for Content Delivery Network. This is where numerous computer systems are linked up to carry the same data at different nodes to improve their overall performance.
Center Cut Safe Area: A 4:3 area within a 16:9 HD sized video frame. Due to the preponderance of SD televisions, many stations require video to be center cut safe. This way, they may simply crop the 16:9 frame to 4:3 from broadcast on SD.
CG: These letters stand for character generator, the eletronic text composing device that is the most downstream device in a television switcher before program. In video postproduction, a character generator is now integrated with desktop editors.
Chain: A broadcast network; also, a newspaper or magazine group of single ownership or control.
Chain Break (CB): The time during which a network allows a station to identify itself; usually a 20-second spot (slang “twenty”); now often a 30-second spot plus a ten-second spot, with 20 seconds remaining for identification.
Channel: A term YouTube use to refer to user Profiles.
Chapter: A segment on a DVD that is used during navigation. Authored DVDs have their glossarys created at specific points to divide the video for easy navigation and interactivity.
Character Generator: A keyboard device used to create letters, numbers, and simple characters in a video form.
Character Studies: Referring to a type of video in which the story is told through one key character.
Charge-Back: A funding scheme in which a department runs on fees charged for its services.
Cheat: Traditional filming term referring to moving a member of the film crew to a new position to capture a better shot.
Checking: The process of confirming whether an advertisement actually appeared.
Checking Copy: A copy of a publication that is supplied by the medium to show that an advertisement appeared as specified.
Chimera: A popular brand of lighting used in Interviews.
Chinese Lantern: A white paper lantern that produces a soft warm light.
Chips: A small circuit board for processing data. Camcorders have one or three optical chips.
ChromaKey: A video effect that removes colored background from behind a subject. With the background removed, an editor has the freedom to put the subject on any other type of background. Typically, chromakey backgrounds are either green or blue, with green being the predominant.
Chroma Subsampling: Applying more compression to the chrominance portion of the signal than to the luminance. Humans process luminance with more precision than chrominance. There is no perceptible loss by compressing chrominance at a higher level than the luminance portion of the signal.
Chrominance: The colour level or colour saturation.
Circuit Breaker: An automatically operated switch created to protect electrical circuits from damage.
Circulation: In print, the number of copies distributed; in broad- cast, the number of households within a signal area that have receiving sets; in outdoor, the number of people who have a reason- able opportunity to see a billboard.
City Zone: A central city and the contiguous areas that cannot be distinguished from it.
City Zone Circulation: The number of newspapers that are distributed within a city, rather than in outlying areas.
Clapper Board: A filmmaking essential used to mark the beginning or end of a film take (traditionally containing scene information). The Clapper Board also helps to sync visuals to sound.
Classified Advertising: Advertising that is set in small type and arranged according to categories or interests.
Classified Display Advertising: Classified advertising of a larger size than most other classified advertising, possibly with headlines, illustrations, and so on; classified advertising with some of the characteristics of display advertising (see Display advertising).
Class Magazines: Special-interest magazines with desirable upscale audiences.
Clearance: Coverage of national television households by the number of stations (or markets) accepting a network program for airing; also, gaining available time on stations to carry a program or commercial.
Clear Time: The process of reserving time or time periods with a station or network; checking on available advertising time.
Client: A software program that is used to contact and obtain data from a Server software program on another computer, often across a great distance. Each Client program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of Server programs, and each Server requires a specific kind of Client. A Web Browser is a specific kind of Client.
Client: The person requesting a service; the customer.
Clip: A short video segment.
Clipping Bureau: An organization that aids in checking print advertising by clipping the advertisements from print media.
Closed Captioning: And subtitling are both processes of displaying text on a television, video screen, or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information. Both are typically used as a transcription of the audio portion of a program as it occurs (either verbatim or in edited form), sometimes including descriptions of non-speech elements.
Closed-Circuit TV: A distribution system using receiving sites physically wired to the source.
Closed Loop Marketing: a reporting environment where the outcome and impact of the campaigns marketing can be obtained by relating the marketing activities with sales and revenues obtained, allowing the calculation of return on investment (ROI) and closing the cycle between marketing expenses and generated revenues.
Close Up Shot: A video clip taken from close range that shows very little of the subject. If the subject is a person, you’ll see only his/her head.
Closing Date: The final deadline set by print media for advertising material to appear in a certain issue: in broadcast, the term “closing hour” may be used.
Closure: A sale resulting from following up on an inquiry from direct mail advertising.
Cloud Computing: Refers to the growing phenomenon of users who can access their data from anywhere rather than being tied to a particular machine.
CMOS Chip: CMOS stands for “complementary metal oxide semiconductor.”
Coaster: A sarcastic name for a disc that will not play. It could be used as a coaster for drinks.
Coax or Coaxial Cable: A video cable that consists of an inner conductor, an insulating layer, and a conducting shield consisting usually of braided metal. Coax is thicker than shielded audio cables because of the higher frequencies of video. RG59 is a common size for coax cable.
Coaxial: A type of cable used to connect cameras, mixing desks, monitors and other equipment together.
Cobrowsing: Navigation of Internet pages by two or more users. Some cobrowsing tools offer synchronized playback of video with start, pause and stop functionality.
Codec: Short for compression/decompression. A sophisticated piece of software that can encode or decode audio and video for various applications and usage.
Collateral: Something pledged as security for repayment of a loan, to be forfeited in the event of a default.
Color Correction: A range of video effects that can modify, change, or enhance the color, saturation, and contrast of a video.
Colour Bars: A standard test signal used as a reference when setting up equipment.
Colour Temperature: The color of a light source, measured in degrees Kelvin.
Column inch: Publication space that is one column wide by one-inch high, used as a measure of advertising space.
Combination Rate: A special discounted advertising rate for buying space in two or more publications owned by the same interests.
Comment: A YouTube function where users can respond to other online videos via text.
Commercial: Can refer to either a video advertisement that airs on television or the internet, or an audio advertisement that airs on radio. Also known as a Spot.
Commercial impressions: The total audience, including duplication, for all commercial announcements in an advertiser’s schedule (see Gross impressions.)
Community Constituency: The audience or community that is to be served.
Compact Flash Card: Digital media card used by some cameras including the RED camera.
Company News Program: A program following the broadcast journalism format containing news of a particular organization produced by and for that organization.
Comparative Advertising: An advertisement in which a particular product, or service, specifically mentions a competitor by name for the express purpose of showing why the competitor is inferior to the product naming it.
Competition-Oriented Pricing: Basing the price of a product or service on what competitors are charging for the same or similar products or services.
Compliance: A set of style guidelines set forth by a company that must be adhered to in all advertising. These usually pertain to (but are not limited to) advertising style, logos, phrases, pricing, and disclaimer text guidelines. Failure to meet compliance can result in punishments ranging from disqualification for awards to denial of co-op funds. (See Cooperative Advertising)
Compliance Pre-Approval: The process by which advertising is submitted to a compliance checking company. Denied ads are modified and re-sent for approval. Approved ads are sent out to the media outlet for broadcast, print, etc.
Component Video: Separating primary colours and picture information of a video signal into three cables, usually coloured red, green, and blue. This allows for a sharper display of video.
Composite Video: Combining video signal and colour into a single cable, usually the yellow RCA-type connector on a monitor, camcorder, or DVD player.
Compositing: Combining several images together, sometimes using layering, to create a single scene. Chroma-key and green screen are examples of compositing.
Composition: The visual makeup of a video frame.
Compression: There are two main types of compression; signal compression and data compression. A good example of such compression are formats such as MP3 and H.264.
Concept: A briefly stated idea or theme for possible use as the organizing idea for an advertisement or advertising campaign.
Content: The textual, visual, or aural content that is encountered as part of the user experience on websites.
Confessionals: A private one-to-one film segment between one camera and one subject/character.
Confirmation: A broadcast media statement that a specific time is still open for purchase by an advertiser who is preparing a broadcast advertising schedule.
Constructed Answer: A “fill-in-the-blank” answer that must be remembered and spelled out rather than just selected from a list.
Consultant: A person who offers information and advice in a particular field.
Consumer Profile: A demographic description of the people or house- holds that are prospects for a product or service (see Target group).
Content Expert: The subject-matter expert versed in the content of a program
Content Management (Web): This term refers to the management and editing of text, images, and other non-development elements of a website, content management refers to Search Engine Optimization, as well as user experience.
Content Management System (CMS): A computer application that supports the creation and modification of digital content. It typically supports multiple users in a collaborative environment.
Content Verification Program: YouTube’s own tool that allows copyright owners to easily find video materials that are infringing on their rights.
Contingency: An emergency pot of money built into your budget. Contingency usually makes up 15% of your overall budget.
Contiguity Rate: A reduced broadcast advertising rate for sponsoring two or more programs in succession; Example, an advertiser participating in two programs running from 7:00 pm: – 7:30 pm, and then 7:30 pm – 8:00 pm, may qualify for a contiguity rate.
Continuity: The illusion of continuous action, even when segments are edited together that were recorded at different times.
Controlled Circulation: Circulation that is limited to persons who qualify to receive a publication; often distributed free to qualified persons.
Control Pulses: Electronic pulses used to synchronize and control video play-back; these can be counted by an editing interface in order to identify relative places on tape.
Control Room: An area that contains audio and video controls, such as a mixer and switcher for a TV studio.
Control Track: An essential track of electronic pulses that maintain continuous Time Codes for your production to ensure the editing process is as easy as possible.
Conversion (sales): The act of turning a potential customer into an actual sale.
Conversion Path: A description of the steps taken by a user of a website towards a desired end from the standpoint of the website operator or marketer. The typical conversion path begins with a user arriving at a landing page and proceeding through a series of page transitions until reaching a final state, either positive (e.g. purchase) or negative (e.g. abandoned session).
Conversion Rate: The proportion of visitors to a website who take action to go beyond a casual content view or website visit, as a result of subtle or direct requests from marketers, advertisers, and content creators.
Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO): A system for increasing the percentage of visitors to a website that convert into customers, or more generally, take any desired action on a webpage.
Cookie: A message from a Web Server computer, sent to and stored by your browser on your computer. When your computer consults the originating server computer, the cookie is sent back to the server, allowing it to respond to you according to the cookie’s contents. The main use for cookies is to provide customized Web pages according to a profile of your interests. When you log onto a “customize” type of invitation on a Web page and fill in your name and other information, this may result in a cookie on your computer which that Web page will access to appear to “know” you and provide what you want. If you fill out these forms, you may also receive e-mail and other solicitation independent of cookies.
Cooperative Advertising: Retail advertising that is paid partly or fully by a manufacturer; two or more manufacturers cooperating in a single advertisement (slang “co-op”).
Cooperative Announcement: Commercial time in network programs that is made available to stations for sale to local or national advertisers.
Cooperative Program: A network broadcast that is also sold on a local basis and sponsored by both national and local advertisers; for example, “The Tonight Show” (see Network cooperative program).
Copy: See script.
Copyright: Legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution.
Copywriter: A person with good verbal abilities who is talented in creating advertising ideas and skilled at writing advertising copy.
Copy writing: The act of writing text for the purpose of advertising or other forms of marketing.
Corporate Discounting: Incentives offered to advertisers with numerous brands of products; all of the corporation’s advertising schedules are combined for a larger discount level.
Cost-Effectiveness: An assessment of the benefits versus the cost of something.
Cost Efficiency: A goal of media marketing that is aimed at minimizing advertising expenses incurred while maximizing product publicity to a target market in terms of breadth and frequency of exposure.
Cost-per-action (CPA): An online advertising payment model where payment is based solely on qualifying actions such as sales or registrations.
Cost Per Rating Point (CPR): The figure indicates the dollar cost of advertising exposure to one percentage point of the target group, audience, or population (see Rating point).
Cost Per Thousand (CPM): A dollar comparison that shows the relative cost of various media or vehicles; the figure indicates the dollar cost of advertising exposure to a thousand households or individuals.
Cost Per Thousand Per Commercial Minute (CPM/PCM): The cost per thousand of a minute of broadcast advertising time.
Counter Numbers: A revolving number scale, indicating revolutions of a tape, used to roughly index section of a tape on a playback unit.
Cover: A director must shoot the same scene from several angles so that action and dialogue are repeated in different camera angles in order for the editor to create continuity from shot to shot within a scene. Without cover, a scene cannot be edited.
Coverage: The number or percentage of individuals or households that are exposed to a medium or to an advertising campaign
Cover Position: An advertisement on the cover of a publication, often at a premium cost; first cover = outside front cover; second cover=inside front cover; third cover=inside back cover; fourth cover=outside back cover.
Cowcatcher: A brief commercial announcement at the beginning of a broadcast program. CPA: CPA, or cost per action, is an ad payment model in which advertisers pay only when an ad display leads to a completed sale, registration, download, etc. Virtually all affiliate network advertising can be thought of as CPA. Low-volume sites will find it difficult, if not impossible, to generate revenue through CPA advertising, as a large quantity of banner displays would be needed to generate actual sales. A typical CPA ad may generate a CTR (click-through-rate) of 1%, followed by a conversion rate (the rate at which users complete a sale or registration) of 1%. At those comparatively high levels, 10,000 banners would have to be displayed to generate one sale. For this reason, commissions must be high enough to translate into a reasonable CPM for the web publisher. In the previous example, a commission on sales of $5.00 would translate to a CPM of $0.50, which is low but not unreasonable in today’s market for banner ads.
CPC: A performance-based pricing model for advertising sales, CPC, or cost per click pays publishers based on number of clicks on a specific ad. Most ad networks, logically enough, only pay once per click per user within a specified time period, generally 24 hours or more. CPC rates can vary greatly, from $0.01 to $0.05 for low-scale networks, up to $0.35 or more for more reputable ad networks.
CPL: Similar to CPA (cost per action), the CPL ad pricing model pays web publishers for every banner click that results in a lead or inquiry for the advertiser. In other words, advertisers pay publishers only when a visitor not only click the ad and visit the advertiser’s site, but also performs a desired action on that site (such as request information via an online form).
CPM: PCPM, or cost per thousand (the M is from the Roman numeral for thousand, which was derived from the Latin “mille”), is the price an advertiser pays for each 1000 displays of a banner ad. As opposed to performance-based models such as CPA or CPC, CPM rates guarantee web publishers revenue for each ad displayed, whether the visitor clicks it or not, and are thus usually preferable to CPC or CPA models. CPM levels at the most common ad networks range from $0.20 – $1.50 for 468×60 banners, up to $5.00 – $8.00 for popups, popunders and layer ads, and potentially higher for interstitials and full page ads.
Craft Services: This refers to the catering services available on a film shoot, but on a smaller basis i.e. drinks and snacks.
Crane: A piece of equipment used to raise a camera to capture high-angle shots.
Crawl: Horizontal text that moves across a frame of video, left to right or right to left.
Creative Strategy: Generally the result of a team composed of one or more copywriters, an art director and a creative director. The creative strategy generally explains how the advertising campaign will meet the advertising objectives of the business.
Crew Call: The time at which all persons working on a video production must report to the location or set.
Criterion Test: A test measuring specific criteria or objectives used to evaluate the success of a program.
Crop: To remove unwanted outer parts of an image.
Crop Out: A camera and post production technique used to tighten or recompose a shot that has unwanted images creeping into the frame.
Crossfade: Typically used during audio mixing this term refers to the fade in and fade out of one audio track to another.
Crossing The Line: Also known as the 180-degree rule. Keeping camera angles on one side of an imaginary line running through the set. Crossing the line can cause confusing discontinuity.
Crossplugs: In alternating sponsorships, permitting each advertiser to insert one announcement into the program during the weeks when the other advertiser is the sponsor, maintaining weekly exposure for both (see Alternate sponsorship.
Crowdsourced Content: Ideas, or content obtained by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees or suppliers.
CSS – (Cascading Style Sheet): A standard for specifying the appearance of text and other elements. CSS was developed for use with HTML in Web pages but is also used in other situations, notably in applications built using XPFE. CSS is typically used to provide a single “library” of styles that are used over and over throughout a large number of related documents, as in a web site. A CSS file might specify that all numbered lists are to appear in italics. By changing that single specification the look of a large number of documents can be easily changed.
CTB Gel: Abbreviation of Colour Temperature Blue, which refers to a lighting gel used to cast a natural ‘daylight’ glow on scenes.
CTO Gel: Abbreviate of Colour Temperate Orange, which refers to a lighting gel used to cast a warm ‘indoor’ glow on scenes.
CU: A close-up frames the head and shoulders leaving head room above the head. A close-up is about detail.
Cumulative Audience: Cumulative broadcast rating; the net unduplicated audience of a station or network during two or more time periods; also used to describe how many different households or people are reached by an advertising schedule (also called “accumulative audience,” “net audience,” and “unduplicated audience”); technically, a cumulative audience is those persons who were ex- posed to any insertion of an advertisement in multiple editions of a single vehicle, whereas an unduplicated audience is those persons who were exposed to any insertion of an advertisement in a combination of vehicles or media, counting each person only once (slang) “cume”.
Cumulative Reach: The number of different households that are ex- posed to a medium or campaign during a specific time.
Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC): The cost associated in convincing a customer to buy a product/service. This cost is incurred by the organization to convince a potential customer. This cost is inclusive of the product cost as well as the cost involved in research, marketing, and accessibility costs.
Cut (Video Footage): One shot or take.
Cut (Video Editing): A version of an edited video. Cuts are often labeled at different stages of the editing process, see Rough Cut and Final Cut. Also can refer to the abrupt change between one video clip and another, without an effect or transition.
Cut (Production): To stop video and/or audio recording.
Cut Away: A filming technique where the camera shoots something other than the central subject of the video.
Cut-In: The insertion of a local commercial announcement into a net- work or recorded program.
Cut On Action: To change shots while an action is taking place.
Dashboard: A user interface that, somewhat resembling an automobile’s dashboard, organizes and presents information in a way that is easy to read.
Data DVD/CD: Unlike a video DVD or audio CD that plays on a standard machine, a data DVD or CD is designed to store AV files in a computer format. Data discs such as these are used for further editing or for Internet uploading.
Dayparts: Specific segments of the broadcast day; for example, day- time, early fringe, prime time, late fringe, late night.
Dead Air: Sections of pure silence during a production.
Dead Cat: An American slang term referring to the faux fur coverings used to block ambient noise from Boom Mics.
Deadline: The final date for accepting advertising material to meet a publication or broadcast schedule (see Closing date).
Dealer Imprint: Inserting a local dealer’s identification into nationally prepared advertising.
Dealer Tie-In: A manufacturer’s announcement that lists local dealers; not the same as “co-op”.
Deceptive Marketing/Advertising: Using misleading, untrue, or unconfirmed information or statements to advertise a product or service.
Decibel: The unit of measurement for tracking sound levels. Abbreviated as dB.
Dedicated Microprocessor: A device that has a single purpose, designed specifically for producing or playing back interactive video programs.
Delayed Broadcast (DB): A local station broadcasting a network pro- gram at a time other than its regularly scheduled network time.
Delivery: The ability to reach or communicate with a certain audience or number of people by using a particular advertising schedule; the physical delivery of a publication.
Demographic: A particular sector of a population.
Demographic Characteristics: The population characteristics of a group or audience.
Depth Of Field: A cinematography term referring to the proportion of area in front or behind a subject/character/object is in/out of focus. Abbreviated as d.o.f
Designated Market Area (DMA): A term used by the A:C: Nielsen Company; an area based on those counties in which stations of the originating market account for a greater share of the viewing households than those from any other area (see ADI); for example, Lake County, Illinois, belongs to the Chicago DMA because a majority of household viewing in Lake County is or can be ascribed to Chicago stations rather than to stations from Milwaukee or any other market.
DGA: Directors Guild of America.
Digest Unit: See Junior unit.
Digital Assets: a term that refers to all media which is currently in a digital format. Videos, images, and audio files which can be accessed from a computer or digital device.
Digital Compositing: The process of digitally assembling multiple images to make a final image. Adobe After Effects, Apple Shake and Autodesk Smoke are digital compositing applications.
Digital File Conversion: Transferring one type of audio/video file to another for the purpose of uploading it to the Internet or making a CD or DVD.
Digital Marketing: The marketing of products or services using digital technologies, mainly on the Internet, but also including mobile phones, display advertising, and any other digital medium.
Digital Recording: Audio and video are converted to bits of data. This results in no signal loss when digital copies are made. DVDs are digital, while VHS tape is analog.
Digital Video Editing: Using a computer to perform video editing, the scenes are assembled in the order required.
Digital Video Manipulator: A special-effects device that can control the size and position of a shot.
Digitize: To convert pictures or audio into a digital form that can be processed by a computer.
Dimmer Box: An electrical dial used to control the brightness of a lighting setup.
Direct Advertising: Advertising that is under complete control of the advertiser, rather than through some established medium; for example, direct mail or free sampling.
Direct Mail Advertising: Advertising sent by mail; also used to describe advertising in other media that solicits orders directly through the mail.
Direct Marketing: Sales made directly to the customer, rather than through intermediaries or intervening channels: includes direct mail, direct advertising, telemarketing, and so forth.
Director: The key individual in charge of organizing the cinematic filming of a production.
Directory Advertising: Advertising that appears in a buying guide or directory; advertisements in a store directory: for example, Yellow Pages advertising.
Dirty Track: A low quality track of audio that is not suitable for the final project, but recorded just for reference, so that better quality audio from a separate source can be synced up or recreated in post-production.
Disclaimer: A statement that denies something, especially responsibility.
Display: Another word for monitor, whether it is a computer monitor or video monitor.
Display Advertising: Print advertising that is intended to attract attention and communicate easily through the use of space, illustrations, layout, headline, and so on, as opposed to classified advertising.
Display Classified Advertising: See Classified display advertising.
Dissolve: A video effect that gradually transitions from one video clip to another or to a color such as black or white.
DivX: A trade name for a digital video compression format based on the MPEG-4 standard that compresses video into a small file.
DNS – (Domain Name System): The Domain Name System is the system that translates Internet domain names into IP numbers. A “DNS Server” is a server that performs this kind of translation.
DNS – (Domain Name System) Domain, Top Level Domain (TLD): Hierarchical scheme for indicating logical and sometimes geographical venue of a web-page from the network. In the US, common domains are .edu (education), .gov (government agency), .net (network related), .com (commercial), .org (nonprofit and research organizations). Outside the US, domains indicate country: ca (Canada), uk (United Kingdom), au (Australia), jp (Japan), fr (France), etc. Neither of these lists is exhaustive. See also DNS entry.
Domain Name, Domain Name Server (DNS) Entry: Any of these terms refers to the initial part of a URL, down to the first /, where the domain and name of the “host” or “server” computer are listed (most often in reversed order, name first, then domain). The domain name gives you who “published” a page, made it public by putting it on the Web. A domain name is translated in huge tables standardized across the Internet into a numeric IP address unique the host computer sought. These tables are maintained on computers called “Domain Name Servers.” Whenever you ask the browser to find a URL, the browser must consult the table on the domain name server that particular computer is networked to consult. “Domain Name Server entry” frequently appears a browser error message when you try to enter a URL. If this lookup fails for any reason, the “lacks DNS entry” error occurs. The most common remedy is simply to try the URL again, when the domain name server is less busy, and it will find the entry (the corresponding numeric IP address).
Docu-Drama: A program format in which actual events are re-created or dramatized.
Documentary: A program format documenting a real event rather than creating a scripted one.
Dolly: A piece of equipment that allows for the camera to roll/move smoothly across a scene
Double-Mike: The practice of using two microphones on a person as a precaution against failure.
Double Spotting: See Piggyback.
Double Spread: See Two-page spread.
Double System Audio: Audio that is recorded with a separate audio recorder apart from the camera. When shooting double system, the audio is synched up with the picture by using a clapper slate, so the sound of the clap can be aligned with physical clap seen on camera. It is also common when shooting video to record a “dirty” reference track with a camera mic to assist with synching.
Double Take: Like many comic devices, the double take is a compact with the audience. The character takes an extra long time to react to a put down or before delivering a reply. Although it can be an acting technique, it is also very much a comic effect that can be written into a script. It needs the right line or situation with an indication in the script. You do this by writing pause, beat, or even double take.
Double Truck: Slang term for a print advertisement that uses two full pages side-by-side, but not necessarily the two center pages, usually for a magazine advertisement (see Center spread and Two-page spread.
Downloadable Video: Video that may be downloaded from a website and stored on a user’s computer. Downloadable video takes longer to start playing than streaming video, but streaming video may not be stored.
Dramatic Readings: This is a narrative convention used by actors/subjects to bring to life letters, diaries and documents.
Dramatic Zoom: A cinematography technique whereby the camera zooms in or out slowly to emphasis the onscreen events.
Drip Marketing: A communication strategy that sends, or “drips,” a pre-written set of messages to customers or prospects over time. These messages often take the form of email marketing, although other media can also be used.
Drive Time: Radio broadcast time during morning and evening commuter rush hours.
DRM: The abbreviation for Digital Rights Management. This refers to the copyright restriction of digital content.
Drone: An aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
Dropouts: This term refers to breaks and missions in the audio, usually caused by a cable short, wireless interference, or power issues that result in no sound being recorded for a few seconds here and there. This can’t be fixed in post.
Dry Run: A typical practice or rehearsal of a particular scene in a production.
DSLR: A digital single-lens reflex camera (also called a digital SLR or DSLR) is a digital camera that combines the optics and the mechanisms of a single-lens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor, as opposed to photographic film.
Dub: A tape copy of a video.
Dubbing: The act of copying a video to tape or multiple tapes.
Duplication: Making copies of DVDs, CDs, or videotapes. The process usually includes verification to confirm that the signals had been properly recorded on the discs or tapes. Frequently, labels and boxes are included with duplication.
Dutch Angle: A typical film technique in which the camera is titled diagonally to express tension, energy or fun.
DV: An abbreviation for Digital Video.
DVCAM: A popular digital videotape format. It is used in broadcast-quality camcorders and in digital video editing.
DVD: Digital versatile disc. Can be used to store video and other kinds of data.
DVD Authoring: The process of creating a custom DVD by dividing a video into glossarys. Chapters are listed in a menu and allow for easy navigation and interactivity.
DVD Video: A DVD disc that has standard video and audio recorded on it. Will play in standard DVD players or a computer.
DVE: Transitions between shots have become so numerous because of the advent of DVE’s or digital video effects in computer based editors and mixers that it would be impossible to list the dozens of different patterns and effects. Once again, this is the province of postproduction unless you have a very strong reason to incorporate a specific visual effect into your script.
DVI: Connector for HD video display on a monitor. It is similar and compatible with HDMI, but it carries no audio.
Dynamic Content: Content that is customized based on the viewer, opposed to “static content,” which is the same for all viewers.
E-Commerce: Electronic commerce (also known as ebusiness). Buying and selling products and services via the Internet.
Editorial Calendar: A calendar used to define and control the process of creating content, from idea through writing and publication.
Edited Master: The original copy of an edited program.
Editing: Combining video shots together in an organized method. Includes addition of voice-over narration, music, titles, graphics, and special effects.
Editing Controller: A device that controls VTR’s during the editing process; editing interface.
Editing Script: A script marked up with location numbers of each segment on the raw footage for expediency in assembling the final program.
Editor: The professional technician who performs video editing, postproduction, photo montages, and digital file conversion.
EDL: Stands for Edit Decision List. A roadmap of a video project used by a non-linear editing application. An EDL contains timecode, file names, and other media data that can be used to re-create a project even if all the media has been taken offline.
Effective Frequency: Level or range of audience exposure that provides what an advertiser considers to be the minimal effective level, and no more than this optimal level or range; also called “effective reach”.
Effective Reach: See Effective frequency.
EFP: Electronic field production; shooting video generally with one camera out of the studio.
EFX: Referring to Special Effects, which can often be found abbreviated as FX.
Electronic Editing: Rearranging and “cutting” segments by means of duplication.
E-Mail (Electronic Mail): A service that allows people to send messages with pictures and sounds from their computer to any other computer in the world. To send an e-mail message you need an e-mail account and to know the other person’s e-mail address.
E-mailer: A form of advertisement sent via email.
Embedding: YouTube provides a website HTML code for all videos allowing users to copy and paste that code into their websites and blogs to display the video on other platforms.
Encoding: The process of converting a video or audio file into a different type of video or audio file. For example, a Quicktime .mov file can be encoded to a Windows Media .wmv file.
End Roll: A filming practice where shots are left to record for a few extra seconds after the scene has completed to ensure editing is as easy as possible.
ENG: Electronic news gathering; a production style using small portable equipment for high mobility in the field, as pioneered by broadcast news.
Engagement Rate: A metric that measures the level at which people are interacting with content including comments, likes, shares, etc.
Enterprise WAN: Enterprise wide area network. The network links corporate offices from different locations.
Equalize: To filter an audio track to balance the reproduction of ranges of frequencies.
Equipment Package: An absolute list of the equipment you need to create your video.
Essential Area: The area in the center of a shot that will be reproduced in full by almost any TV monitor.
Establishing Shot: A film technique used to establish the scene, story or genre of a video. Typically a wide or long shot to help viewers take in a location.
Exclusive Rights: The right to use a given work and to prevent anyone else from using it.
Executive Producer: The senior editor on a video production.
Exposure (photography): The quantity of light or other radiation reaching a photographic film, as determined by shutter speed and lens aperture.
Exposure (publicity): The publicizing of information or an event.
EXT: This is the standard abbreviation for exterior used in the slug line of a script.
Exterior Shot: The practice of filming outside of a building, room or area to provide on screen context. Similar to an Establishing Shot.
External Sync: Sync provided by a generator in common to all the cameras and VTR’s in a system.
Extreme Close Up: A video clip taken from extremely close range that focuses on only one of the subject’s features. If the subject is a person, an extreme close up may be their eye only.
Eyeline: The imaginary line that goes from the lens of a camera to the eyes of a subject.
Facing: A billboard location with the panels facing the same direction and visible to the same lines of traffic.
Fade: A video effect that gradually transitions from a color (usually black) to a video clip or visa-versa. Fades are often used to begin and end a video.
Fade In: Almost all audio events are faded in and faded out to avoid the snap cut to music or effects at full level. This also permits us to use music cues that do not necessarily correspond to the beginning and end of a piece.
Fade In From Black: All programs begin with this effect that is simply a mix from black to picture. Sometimes you might write in this effect to mark a break in time or sections of a program.
Fade Out: This is the audio cue that most people forget to use. They fade in music or effects and then forget to indicate where the audio event ends. The fade out eases out the sound so that an abrupt cut off or stop does not shock the ear or draw attention to itself.
Fade Out To Black: All programs end with this effect that is a mix from picture to black, the opposite of the fade in from black. Logically, these two fade effects go in pairs.
Fade Under: Fading an audio event such as music under is necessary when you want the event to continue but not compete with a new event that will mix from another track – typically dialogue or commentary. Be clear that these decisions are largely made by audio mixers and editors. Nevertheless, you should know these terms for the rare occasion when you need to lock in a specific audio idea in your script.
Fast Lens: A fast lens refers to a lens that is capable of opening to a very low f-stop, generally lower than 2.8, and therefore let’s more light into the lens. Fast lenses can better handle low-light shooting situations and are generally more versatile and faster to shoot with, since you have less lighting hassles and can use filters more freely. Naturally, fast lenses are more expensive than other lens.
Featured Videos: A section of YouTube which displays particularly popular or Partner videos.
Feed: Referring to when video or audio is fed to another source or location to another.
Field: Any place not in the studio.
Field Production: An on-location video shoot.
Filament: The thin spring that glows to produce light inside a bulb.
File-Based Editing: Instead of videotape, editing is done using file-based media such as a hard drive, optical disc, or solid-state storage.
Fill Light: A light that aims to boost the lighting level on set to erase any shadows and improve the visibility of the frame.
Film Chain: A video camera, slide projector, and film projector in a unit designed to transfer film images to video.
Film-Style Shooting: Shooting with one portable camera.
Final Cut: Refers to the last pass of video editing on a video project. The final cut encompasses all video, audio, and graphic elements and has been polished with effects and transitions.
Final Cut Pro: A non-linear video editing application created by Apple.
Final Draft Script: It is the final document that incorporates all the revisions and input of the client or producer and all the improvements and finishing touches that a writer gives to the writing job even when not explicitly asked for. A script writer, like all writers, looks at his work with a critical eye and seeks constant improvement. This document should mark the end of the writer’s task and the completion of any contractual arrangement.
Firestore: A brand of battery powered camera-mountable hard drives that capture live video.
Firewire 400/800 (IEEE 1394/iLink): These are super quick connections for transferring video data to or from a camera, computer or hard drive.
First Draft Script: It is the initial attempt to transpose the content of the treatment into a screenplay or script format appropriate to the medium. This is the cross-over from prose writing to script writing in which all the special conventions of camera and scene description are used. The layout of the page serves the special job of communicating action, camera angles, and audio to a production team. It is the idea of the program formulated as a blueprint for production. The producer, the client, and the director get their first chance to read a total account for every scene from beginning to end.
First Generation: An original recording, not a copy.
Fishpole: A boom for holding a shotgun microphone. The boom may be extended and is usually held by a sound technician.
Fixed Rate: An advertising rate for advertising time that cannot be taken away or “preempted” by another advertiser; usually the highest advertising rate; commonly used in broadcast advertising.
Flash: A Web-based animation application that transforms Web pages into a swirl of action, colors, and excitement. Without broadband access, this involves a long loading time (and the potential loss of visitors who are unwilling to wait). As well, a Flash application means no content for Search Engines spiders to crawl and rank (which means that you can’t take advantage of free Search Engine traffic).
Flash Frame: Frames that transition so fast they can almost go completely unnoticed during a production.
Flash Video: A Macromedia codec used to allow the playback of digital web video productions on websites.
Flashback/Flash Forward: These terms refer to a narrative device that both writers and editors use to manage the relationship of different moments in a dramatic story.
Flat Rate: A print advertising rate that is not subject to discount.
Flickr: Flickr provides both private and public image storage. A user uploading an image can set privacy controls that determine who can view the image. A photo can be flagged as either public or private.
Flight (flight saturation): Concentrating advertising within a short time period; an advertising campaign that runs for a specified number of weeks, followed by a period of inactivity (see Hiatus), after which the campaign may resume with another flight.
Floating Time: See Run of schedule.
Fold: The bottommost visible area of a web page as displayed on a standard screen size (currently defined as 800×600 pixels). Many ad networks require their ads to be displayed “above the fold” (see related definition).
Flood: A Flood is used to widen a beam of light to make it less intrusive in the frame.
Fluorescent Light: A tubular mercury-vapour light that use a ballast to regulate the flow of power. These are used in professional film productions.
Flypack: Rack-mounted video production equipment encased in a shipping case that is approved for airline shipping.
Follow Focus: Controlling lens focus to maintain image clarity throughout a scene.
Font: A character set or alphabet style.
Footage: Raw, unedited material as originally filmed by a movie camera or recorded by a video camera, which typically must be edited to create a motion picture, video clip, television show or similar completed work.
Forced Combination: A policy to require newspaper advertisers to buy advertising space in both morning and evening newspapers owned by the same interests within a market.
Forcing Distribution: Using advertising to increase consumer demand, thereby inducing dealers to stock a product; seldom used.
Form (and Form Tag): FORM tags are special HTML tags that allow you to build forms on your Web page. Customer completes your form, entering the info that you request, then clicks on the SUBMIT button. Your CGI script picks up the data and processes it.
Format: Refers to the type of video you are shooting as expressed by vertical pixels and frame rate, typically in terms such as 1080/60i or 720/24p. May also be more generally referred to as “standard definition” or “high definition” as determined by the lines of vertical resolution.
Formative Evaluation: Assessment that takes place during the development and production process, used for “midcourse” feedback and correction.
FPO: Stands for, For Position Only. An image, video clip, or other element added as a placeholder that will be changed for the final product.
Fractional Page: Print advertising space of less than a full page.
Fractional Showing: An outdoor advertising showing of less than 25 (see Showing).
Frame (Video Production): One of the many single photographic images in a video.
Frame Line: An imaginary line that marks the top of a framed shot.
Frame Rate: Refers to the number of frames of video you are shooting each second. Frame rates are usually shown in camera specs followed by a designation of “p” for progressive or “i” for interlaced scanning. Typical frame rate specs are expressed in terms such as 24p, 30p, and 60i.
Frames: A format for web documents that divides the screen into segments, each with a scroll bar as if it were as “window” within the window. Usually, selecting a category of documents in one frame shows the contents of the category in another frame. To go BACK in a frame, position the cursor in the frame an press the right mouse button, and select “Back in frame” (or Forward). You can adjust frame dimensions by positioning the cursor over the border between frames and dragging the border up/down or right/left holding the mouse button down over the border.
Frame Within A Frame: A cinematography technique whereby a doorway or window is used to create a second frame within the shot.
Frame-Accurate: A term to describe the highest precision in video editing. A frame is 1/30 of a second, and it is the smallest measurement of time in a video or audio recording.
Framing: The composition of a filming shot.
Franken-Camera: Slang term for DSLR cameras that have been outfitted with all the third-party accessories necessary to make them fully function for professional video shooting. Includes any combination of support rods, a field monitor, follow focus, audio recording device, matte box, and more.
Free Circulation: A publication sent without charge; often with controlled circulation.
Freeze Frame: A video effect that creates a still image from a single frame of video.
French Flag: A shade that mounts above the lens to help keep light out of the lens. It looks like a single barn door.
Frequency: The number of times that an average audience member sees or hears an advertisement; the number of times that an individual or household is exposed to an advertisement or campaign (frequency of exposure); the number of times that an advertisement is run (frequency of insertion).
Frequency Discount: A reduced advertising rate that is offered by media to advertisers who run a certain number of advertisements within a given time.
Fringe Time: Broadcast time periods preceding or following prime time; television time between daytime and prime time is called “early fringe” and television time immediately following prime time is called “late fringe.”
F Stop: Also known as the Aperture, F Stops are the numbers that refer to the size of the holes that let light into a lens.
Full Run: One transit advertising car card in every transit bus or car.
Full-Service Agency: An agency that is equip to handle all of its client’s marketing and advertising needs.
Full Showing: The number of outdoor posters that are needed to reach all of the mobile population in a market at least once within a 30-day period (see Gross rating points); also called a 100 showing (see Showing).
FTP: File Transfer Protocol. Transfer rapidly entire files from one computer to another, intact for viewing or other purposes.
Gain: A term used to denote audio and video levels. Audio gain refers to volume and Video gain refers to image brightness.
Gels: Commonly used within lighting gels are transparent sheets of material used to colour light.
General Magazine: A consumer magazine that is not aimed at a special interest audience.
Gen-Lock: To be “driven by” or accept the sync of another piece of equipment.
GFX: An abbreviation for Graphic Effects.
Giveaway: A free offer; a broadcast program that offers free gifts as prized.
Glitch: A picture problem.
Google+: An internet based social network that is owned and operated by Google.
Google Video: Google’s original video hosting service.
GOP: A group of successive pictures within a coded video stream. Each coded video stream consists of successive GOPs. From the pictures contained in it, the visible frames are generated. The GOP is composed of I-frames, which are the least compressible but don’t require other video frames to decode; P-frames, which use data from previous frames to decompress and are more compressible than I-frames; and B-frames, which can use both previous and forward frames for data reference to get the highest amount of data compression.
Grant: An allocation of money awarded competitively for a particular project.
Graphics: This refers to content created either as flat artwork, or more usually, a computer generated frame, with or without animation, in either 2-D or 3-D.
Grassroots: A marketing technique that takes advertising and/or product to potential customers at local events or locations. For example, parades, motorcycle clubs, high school and college sporting events, charity events, etc. Also known as Soft Touch Marketing.
Green Screen: A chroma-keying technique where the subject is shot in front of a green background and that background is replaced during postproduction.
Grid Card: Spot broadcast advertising rates that are set in a matrix format to allow a station to set rates based on current audience ratings and advertiser buying demand.
Grip (Video Production): Lighting and rigging technicians in the film making and video production industries.
Gross Audience: The total number of households or people who are “delivered” or reached by an advertising schedule, without regard to any possible duplication that may occur; also called “total audience.”
Gross Billing: The cost of advertising at the highest advertising rate; the total value of an advertising agency’s space and time dealings (see Billing).
Gross impressions: The total number of persons or the total number of audience impressions delivered by an advertising schedule (see Gross audience).
Gross Rate: The highest possible rate for advertising time or space.
Gross Rating Points (GRPs): The total number of broadcast rating points delivered by an advertiser’s television schedule, usually in a one-week period; an indicator of the combined audience percentage reach and exposure frequency achieved by an advertising schedule; in outdoor, a standard audience level upon which some markets’ advertising rates are based.
Gutter: The inside page margins where a publication is bound.
Hair Light: A light used in filming traditionally placed behind the subject/character at a top left/top right angle focussed towards the hair.
Half Run: Transit advertising car cards in half the buses or transit cars of a system.
Half Showing: A 50 outdoor showing (see Showing).
Hard Copy: A printed document.
Hashtag: A type of metadata tag used on social networks such as Twitter and other microblogging services, allowing users to apply dynamic, user-generated tagging that makes it possible for others to easily find messages with a specific theme or content; it allows easy, informal markup of folk taxonomy without need of any formal taxonomy or markup language.
HD (High Definition): High quality, 16:9 aspect ratio video defined as any of the following sizes: 1920×1080 pixels, interlaced (referred to as 1080i), 1280×720 pixels, progressive (referred to as 720p), or 1440×1080 interlaced (uncommon.)
HDD: Hard drive disk. The hard drive in a computer or an external hard drive for a computer or video camera.
HDMI: Abbreviation for High Definition Multi Interface, which refers to a connection that allows the convergence between video devices and monitors.
HDTV: High-definition television. Sharper than standard definition, it displays up to 10,50 lines of resolution.
HDV: A type of high-definition video that is popular with camcorders.
Headend: A point of origin for cable distribution.
Head of Household: The person within a family or household who is responsible for the major purchase decisions; sometimes, a male head and female head of household are considered separately.
Head Room: A film term referring to the space between a subjects head and the top of the frame.
Helical Scan: The way that most videotape by the head.
Hiatus: A period during a campaign when an advertiser’s schedule is suspended for a time, after which it resumes.
High Angle: A high angle means pointing the camera lens down to an object or a person.
High Tech: A marketing technique that advertises using new or emerging technology and the internet, including social media.
Hitchhiker: A broadcast advertising announcement at the end of a program that promotes another product from the same advertiser.
Hits / Pages / Visits / Visitors: When someone comes to your Web site, that’s a visitor. No matter how long he stays on your site, he’s still the same visitor. And that visit counts as one visit. If he goes away and comes back tomorrow, that’s a new visit. But it does not count as a new visitor – he would best be counted as a repeat visitor. During one of his visits he starts at your home page, then goes to another. That’s two page views (i.e., he has seen 2 different HTML documents). And that’s not the same as hits. Each page view might trigger many hits – if that HTML page has 5 graphics on it, then the HTML document itself and each graphic are registered as a line in the log file. Each line in a log file counts as a hit. So that’s a total of six hits. So a visitor can account for many visits. A visit can have several page views. And each page view triggers several hits (unless it’s only an HTML document and words, in which case a page view would create only one hit).
Holdover Audience: Those persons tuned to a program who stay tuned to that station or network for the following program.
Horizontal Cume: The total number of different people who were tuned to a broadcast station or network at the same time on different days of the week.
Horizontal Publication: A business or trade publication that is of interest at one level or to one job function in a variety of businesses or fields.
Host: Computer that provides web-documents to clients or users. See also server.
Hosting: Every Web site is stored on a computer, called a server, that is connected to the Web. When your site is stored on one of these servers, your site is being “hosted” by the server.
Hot: A cinematic term referring to when a subject is overexposed by intense lighting.
House Agency: An advertising agency that is owned or controlled by an advertiser.
Households Using Radio (HUR): See Sets in use.
Households Using Television (HUT): See Sets in use.
House Organ: A company’s own publication.
HTML5: A tag of Hypertext Markup Language that adds support for embedding video in an HTML page. This is an alternative to Adobe Flash.
HTML5 Video: An element of HTML5 that allows for video playback within websites.
Hue: The tint of colour.
Hulu: A leading online aggregator of Internet video content. Founded in March 2007.
Hypertext: On the World Wide Web, the feature, built into HTML, that allows a text area, image, or other object to become a “link” (as if in a chain) that retrieves another computer file (another Web page, image, sound file, or other document) on the Internet. The range of possibilities is limited by the ability of the computer retrieving the outside file to view, play, or otherwise open the incoming file. It needs to have software that can interact with the imported file. Many software capabilities of this type are built into browsers or can be added as “plug-ins.”
IAB: Internet Advertising Bureau: The IAB, or Internet Advertising Bureau, is an association dedicated to helping online, interactive broadcasting, email, wireless and interactive television media companies increase their revenues
IATSE: International Association of Theatrical and Stage Employees.
iCasting®: An iCasting is a registered trademark of Creative Resources Group, the term is used to describe a unique Microsite, with lead generation and video, (see: Landing Page) that is used in correlation with other marketing efforts.
Identification (ID): A spot television commercial eight to ten seconds in length, during a station break; the last two seconds of the visual time may be reserved for showing the station call letters (“station identification”); a ten-second broadcast commercial announcement, sometimes referred to as a “ten.”
IEEE 1359: A digital cable and connector that handles audio, video, and other information between computers, camcorders, and other digital devices. Also known as FireWire.
IFP: Interruptible feedback. Intercom used for remote broadcasting. Usually includes earpieces that the host and guest wear to hear both each other and the director.
iMAG: Imagine magnification. Frequently used at conferences and conventions, a camera video output is connected to a data projector to project a live image onto a projection screen.
iMobile Microsite: A specifically formatted iCasting microsite that has been developed for use on Current Generation Smartphones, with an easily navigated interface, truncated lead generation, and an optimized video for viewing on mobile devices if necessary.
iMovie: A Mac software used for editing digital video.
Impact: he degree to which an advertisement or campaign affects its audience; the amount of space (full-page, half-page, etc:) or of time (60-second, 30-second, etc.) that is purchased, as opposed to reach and frequency measures; also, the use of color, large type, powerful messages, or other devices that may induce audience reaction (see Unit).
Inbound Link: See “backlink.”
Inbound Marketing: A technique for drawing customers to products and services via content marketing, social media marketing, search engine optimization and branding.
Incandescent: A light that passes electricity through a filament that heats up inside the vacuum of a bulb to provide light.
Incentives (automotive): A corporate sales strategy in which the price a dealer has to pay a manufacturer for a particular product is reduced, allowing the dealer to make a higher profit or to reduce the price at which the product is sold to consumers.
In-Cue: The beginning of a given portion of tape.
Independent Station: A broadcast station that is not affiliated with a network.
Index: A numerical value that is assigned to quantitative data for ease of comparison.
Individual Location: An outdoor location that has room only for one billboard.
Industrial Quality: A grade of video equipment not meeting the specifications of broadcast gear, but better than consumer-type home units.
Industrial Video: Non-broadcast video produced by an organization for instructional/informational use.
Infographic: Graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly.
Infomercial: A form of television commercial, which generally includes a toll-free telephone number or website. Most often used as a form of direct response television (DRTV)
Ingest: The process of capturing video onto a computer.
In-House: Within the organization; owned by the parent company.
In Player Ads: These are online video advertisements that play during the beginning and at intervals during web video content.
In Point: The very start of a time code for a shot/edit.
Insert: An advertisement that is enclosed with bills or letters; a one-page or multi-page print advertisement that is distributed with the publication and may or may not be bound into it.
Insert Edit: To drop in video and/or audio segments on a tape that already has a control track.
Insertion Order: A statement from an advertising agency to a media vehicle that accompanies the advertisement copy and indicates specifications for the advertisement.
Insert Stage: A small studio used for simple recording of voice or picture inserts.
Instagram: A mobile, desktop, and internet-based photo-sharing application and service that allows users to share pictures and videos either publicly, or privately to pre-approved followers.
Instructional DVD: Unlike a training video, an instructional DVD is marketed to the general public or to a special interest group. Instructional DVDs include how-to videos.
Insurance Certificate: This is a representation of the insurance policy that covers a particular project or production company.
INT: This is the standard abbreviation for interior used in the slug line of a script.
Integrated Commercial: A broadcast advertising message that is delivered as part of the entertainment portion of a program. Internet (Upper Case I): The vast collection of interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and early 70’s. An “internet” (lower case i) is any computers connected to each other (a network), and are not part of the Internet unless the use TCP/IP protocols. An “intranet” is a private network; inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use. An intranet may be on the Internet or may simply be a network.
Intensity: A term referring to the quantity of light.
Interactive Video: A video style in which the viewer must actively participate in the video and in which the presentation may vary depending upon the viewer’s responses.
Intercutting: Interspersing segments of several taped sequences to consolidate content and provide visual variety.
Interface Card: A circuit board inserted in a computer so that it can interface with a videotape or disc player.
Interframe: Compression using interframe prediction. This kind of prediction tries to take advantage of the redundancy between neighboring frames to achieve high compression rates with minimal loss.
Interlaced: A video display method which scans and displays the odd numbered lines of resolution first (1,3,5, etc.) followed by the even ones (2,4,6, etc.) for each frame of video displayed on your television set.
Interlaced Scanning: To economize bandwidth for CRT monitors, lines of video are recorded as separate fields of odd lines followed by scans of the even lines. Sometimes still frames in interlace scanning produce a flicker. Progressive scanning produces sharper images but requires greater bandwidth.
Internal Sync: Synchronizing pulses supplied by an individual piece of hardware.
Interstitial Ad: Interstitial advertisements are usually full-page ads displayed while a user is in transit from one page to another, triggered by code included in the link. CPM rates can be as high or higher than popup and popunder rates, and interstitials, due to their similarity to traditional television advertising (i.e., their resemblance to a commercial which is juxtaposed between two television shows), are often viewed as far less intrusive. The Fastclick network (see related review) has recently begun selling interstitial ads, with considerable success.
Interview Subjects: Individuals who will be interviewed for your project.
Intranet: The organization’s internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization’s information technology infrastructure.
In Video Ads: YouTube’s advertising system that plays video ads within their web videos.
I/O Input/output: Refers to connectors and cables going between the computer and AV devices. In computing, I/O also refers to the communication between an information processing system and its user.
iOS: The operating system brought forth by the iPhone from Apple.
IP Address or IP Number: (Internet Protocol number or address). A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g. 188.8.131.52 Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP address. If a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.
IPTV: Internet protocol television.
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network. A set of communications standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network.
Island Position: IA print advertisement that is surrounded by editorial material; a print advertisement that is not adjacent to any other advertising; a broadcast commercial that is scheduled away from any other commercial, with program content before and after; often at premium advertising rates.
Isolated 30: A 30-second broadcast commercial that runs by itself and not in combination with any other announcement; usually found only on network television.
ISP: An abbreviation for Internet Service Provider.
IT: Informational technology. The department in an organization that manages computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware.
ITFS: Instructional Television Fixed Service; a distribution technology using a special band of frequencies set aside for educational narrowcasting.
Jam Sync: Jamming sync is the act of using SMPTE time code generating device to send continuous matching free run timecode to one or multiple cameras or recorders. Time code is fed from one device to a second, which then syncs up to primary devices time code so they are exactly the same. The time code generating device may be an electronic smart slate, time code generator or other video or audio recording device capable of sending time code.
Jib: A boom device with a camera on one end and a counterweight on the other. Used to create long, sweeping high to low angle shots.
Jingle: A short song or tune used in advertising and for other commercial uses.
JPEG: Joint photographic experts group. JPEG is the most popular compression technique for still photos.
Jump Cut: A jarring change between one video clip and another very similar video clip. Jump cuts are very uneasy on the viewer’s eye, but may be used stylistically.
Jump-Cut Style Shooting: Videos that consists of rapid manual zooming to switch composition from a wide shot to a close-up, or vice-versa, during a scene.
Junior Unit: Permitting an advertiser to run a print advertisement prepared for a small page size in a publication with a larger page size, with editorial matter around it in the extra space; similarly, using a Reader’s Digest-size advertising page in a larger magazine is usually called a “Digest unit”.
Ken Burns Effect: A popular visual effect for animating digital still photos that smoothly pans, zooms in, zooms out and otherwise adds life by performing digital “camera moves” on simple still photos.
Key: A code in an advertisement to facilitate tracing which advertisement produced an inquiry or order.
Keyframing: A method of animation which determines motion by setting start and end points for certain parameters. (Including, but not limited to, scale, rotation, and location.)
Key Light: The main light source.
Key Performance Indicator (KPI): A type of performance measurement, KPIs evaluate the success of an organization or of a particular activity (such as projects, programs, products and other initiatives) in which it engages.
Keyword: A word or phrase that you type in when you are searching for information in the search engines.
Keyword Frequency: Denotes how often a keyword appears in a Web page or in an area of a page. In general, higher the number of times a keyword appears in a page, higher its search engine ranking. However, repeating a keyword too often in a page can lead to that page being penalized for spamming.
Keyword Prominence: Denotes how close to the start of an area of a Web page that a keyword appears. In general, having the keyword closer to the start of an area will lead to an improvement in the search engine ranking of a page. However, in some cases, having the keyword in the middle or the end of an area may lead to an improvement in the search engine ranking of the page.
Keyword Weight: Denotes the number of times a keyword appears in a Web page as a percentage of all the other words in the page. In general, higher the weight of a particular keyword in a page, higher will be the search engine ranking of the page for that keyword. However, repeating a keyword too often in order to increase its weight can cause the page to be penalized by the search engines. The URL imbedded in another document, so that if you click on the highlighted text or button referring to the link, you retrieve the outside URL. If you search the field “link:”, you retrieve on text in these imbedded URLs which you do not see in the documents.
KinoFlo: A popular brand of fluorescent lighting used during filming.
Kit Rental: A standard industry “rental fee” charged by professionals who also provide special equipment or supplies, such as makeup artist or sound, camera, and lighting people with their own equipment. They get their day rate for their labor plus a smaller kit rental for use of their gear and/or supplies that you would otherwise have to rent or buy separately.
Landing Page: A landing page is the advertiser’s web page to which a user is directed after clicking an ad. For affiliate, CPL and CPA sales, it is important that the landing page is one which entices users to immediately purchase a product or service, rather than simply the home page of the advertising site.
Laser-Optical: A videodisc format.
Laser-Reflectance: A videodisc format.
Lavaliere (Lav) Microphone: A small mic designed to be worn close to the body.
Lead: A lead indicates a potential customer who has expressed interest in a product or service, generally by means of requesting additional information or following through on an online registration. Some affiliate programs pay on a CPL, or Cost Per Lead, basis.
Leaderboard: A type of banner advertisement measuring 780 x 90 pixels.
Lead Nurturing: See “drip marketing.”
Leitch: An editing equipment company.
Letterbox: Two black bands above and below a 16:9 (anamorphic) aspect ratio video that allow it to fit on a 4:3 aspect ratio (standard definition) television. Letterboxing can also be used as a style element in either SD or HD video.
Licensing Fees: Money spent to obtain the rights to use something copyrighted by someone else.
Life: The length of time during which an advertisement is used; the length of time during which an advertisement is judged still to be effective; the length of time that a publication is retained by its audience.
Life-Style Profiles: Classifying media audiences on the basis of career, recreation, and/or leisure patterns or motives.
Lifetime Value (LTV or CLTV): A prediction of the net profit attributed to the entire future relationship with a customer.
Linage: In print, the number of agate lines to be used for an advertisement or for a series of advertisements, now made somewhat obsolete by the declining use of agate-line measurements (see Agate line).
Linear: A program style in which each viewer watches each segment of the program.
Line Rate: The print advertising rate that is established by the number of agate lines of space used; somewhat obsolete because of the declining use of agate-line space measurements.
Link: The URL imbedded in another document, so that if you click on the highlighted text or button referring to the link, you retrieve the outside URL. If you search the field “link:”, you retrieve on text in these imbedded URLs which you do not see in the documents.
LinkedIn: A business and employment-oriented social networking service that operates via website and mobile app.
List Broker: An agent who prepares and rents the use of mailing lists.
Live Shot: A video sequence captured completely live.
Local Rate: An advertising rate offered by media to local advertisers that is lower than the rate offered to national advertisers.
Local Validity: Credibility for the particular situation.
Location: A real environment you are filming in such as public places, an office or a home.
Location Release: A legal agreement between location owner and filmmaker that allows a filmmaker to shoot within a specific location.
Lock Down: Secures a tripods pan and tilt functions to maintain smooth footage.
Log: A broadcast station’s record of its programming.
Logging: The process by which a large amount of footage is segmented and organized for easy identification during an edit.
Logo: A graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public recognition.
Log Sheet: A form used to make notes about locations, scenes and footage for each day of filming. These often include time codes, and overall opinion on the shots.
Long Shot: This is a camera view that shows a broad location perspective.
Long-tail Keyword: A three or more keyword phrase, used in targeted/specific online searches.
Look-Live: Footage that is shot to appear as if it was captured live.
Lossless Data Compression: A compression technique that allows the original data to be reconstructed when uncompressed. This is in contrast to lossy data compression, where only an approximation of the original data is available.
Lossy Data Compression: Compression used to minimize bit rate for editing and processing. Video can sometimes be compresses 100:1 without noticeable quality loss. Audio can be compressed 10:1 before noticing loss.
Low Angle: A shot taken from a camera close to the ground aiming up at a subject.
Lower Third: Graphics that appear in the lower third portion of a frame of video. Often times, containing a subject’s name or other information.
Low-Light-Level Gain: A boost of sensitivity for a camera when operating in dim surroundings.
LS: This stands for long shot. A long shot should include the whole human figure from head to foot so that this figure or figures are featured rather than the background.
LTO: Linear Tape Open is a magnetic tape storage system that uses open standards. Popular backups in larger computer systems, each tape cartridge can store up to 1.5TB of uncompressed data.
Magazine Format: A program format consisting of a number of feature stories shot in different styles.
Magic Lantern: Third-party firmware that can be installed on some models of DSLR cameras to add some basic video camera features such as zebra stripes, audio meters, etc.
Mail-Order Advertising: Advertisements intended to induce direct ordering of merchandise through the mail; the advertisements them- selves are not necessarily distributed through the mail and may appear in other advertising media.
Make-Good: A repeat of an advertisement to compensate for an error, omission, or technical difficulty with the publication, broadcast, or transmission of the original.
Marginal Analysis: An examination of the additional benefits of an activity compared to the additional costs incurred by that same activity. Companies use marginal analysis as a decision-making tool to help them maximize their potential profits.
Market: See Target market and Target group.
Marketing Automation: Refers to software platforms and technologies designed for marketing departments and organizations to more effectively market on multiple channels online (such as email, social media, websites, etc.) and automate repetitive tasks.
Marketing Plan: A comprehensive document or blueprint that outlines a business advertising and marketing efforts for the coming year. It describes business activities involved in accomplishing specific marketing objectives within a set time frame.
Market Potential: The reasonable maximum market share or sales level that a product or service can be expected to achieve.
Market Profile: A geographic description of the location of prospects for a product or service sometimes used instead of “target profile”; see Target Market and Target profile.
Market Share: A company’s or brand’s portion of the sales of a pro- duct or service category.
Mark Slate: To call the information on a slate out loud, typically including title of the production, scene number or name, and take number.
Mashup: A web page or site made by automatically combining content from other sources, usually by using material available via RSS feeds and/or REST interfaces.
Mass Appeal: A marketing technique that advertises to large amounts of people on mass media such as broadcast television and radio.
Master: An original or finalized copy of a video from which duplications may be made.
Master Scene Script: The standard form of the screenplay for feature film is sometimes referred to by this name because each scene is usually the description of an action from which a master shot will come.
Master Shot: This is the camera shot that captures the whole scene and its dialogue in one single take. The standard practice of directors is to shoot a master and then cover it with other angles of the same action and with cutaways.
Matching Funds: Funds awarded on the basis of “matching” money obtained from other sources.
Mat Service: A service to newspapers that supplies pictures and drawings for use in advertisements; entire prepared advertisements may be offered (“mat” is slang for “matrix”).
Matte Box: A box-like apparatus that mounts onto the front of a camera lens used to avoid unwanted lens flare from the sun and artificial lights. Matte boxes also allow you to mount multiple filters on the front of the lens.
Maximail Rate: The cost of an agate line of advertising space at the highest milline rate; somewhat obsolete as the usage of agate lines has declined.
MCU: Shorthand for “medium close-up”. Basically a shot from the shoulders up.
Mechanical Editing: Physical cutting of a tape.
Media Assets: Items used in your advertising and other productions. May include video footage, graphics, images, audio, etc.
Media Buyer: The person who is responsible for purchasing advertising space or time; often skilled in negotiation with the media.
Mediagraphy: A list of media materials available on a given subject.
Media Planner: The person who is responsible for determining the proper use of advertising media to fulfill the marketing and promotional objectives for a specific product or advertiser.
Medium Close Up: A shot framed from the shoulders up. Abbreviated as MCU.
Medium Shot: A video clip that shows only half of the subject. If the subject is a person, you’ll only see him/her from head to waist.
Memory: The ability to retain a given setting.
Menu: The opening screen of an authored DVD that shows the glossaries. Frequently the glossaries are shown as thumbnails.
Merchandising: The promotion of an advertiser’s products, services, and the like to the sales force, wholesalers, and dealers, promotion other than advertising to consumers through the use of in-store displays, guarantees, services, point-of-purchase materials, and so forth; display and promotion of retail goods; display of a mass media advertisement close to the point of sale.
Message Distribution: Measurement of media audience by the successive frequency of exposure, for example, saw once, saw twice, and so on.
Meta Data: This is the data about your data. For example for videos on a site like YouTube Meta Data is the title, description, thumbnail, and tags.
Meta-Search Engine: Search engines that automatically submit your keyword search to several other search tools, and retrieve results from all their databases. Convenient time-savers for relatively simple keyword searches (one or two keywords or phrases in ” “). See Meta-Search Engines page for complete descriptions and examples.
Meta Tag: A specific kind of HTML tag that contains information not normally displayed to the user. Meta tags contain information about the page itself, hence the name (“meta” means “about this subject”) Typical uses of Meta tags are to include information for search engines to help them better categorize a page. You can see the Meta tags in a page if you view the pages’ source code. Due to previous abuse by web developers using meta tags, the weight of them have been as been greatly reduced in search engine algorithms.
Metropolitan Area: A geographic area consisting of a central city of 50,000 population or more, plus the economically and socially integrated surrounding area, as established by the federal government; usually limited by county boundaries (slang “metro area”).
Metro Rating: The broadcast rating figure from within a metropolitan area.
Microsite: See iCasting
Microwave: Very-short-wave frequencies used for point-to-point transmission; higher than those used by broadcast.
Millenial: (Also known as Generation Y) are the demographic cohort following Generation X. There are no precise dates for when this cohort starts or ends; demographers and researchers typically use the early 1980s as starting birth years and the mid-1990s to early 2000s as ending birth years.
Milline Rate: A comparison of the advertising-line rates of newspapers with uneven circulations by calculating the line-rate-per- million circulation; determined by multiplying the line rate by 1,000,000 and dividing by the circulation; now somewhat obsolete because of the declining use of agate-line measurements and advertising-line rates.
Mini-DV: A popular digital video format used in consumer and prosumer camcorders.
Minimal Rate: The cost of an agate line of advertising at the low- est possible milline rate; somewhat obsolete as the usage of agate lines has declined.
Mini Stereo Connectors: A term used for an 1/8” stereo sound connector like the one on your iPod. Used for headphones and mics.
Mirror: Generally speaking, “to mirror” is to maintain an exact copy of something. Probably the most common use of the term on the Internet refers to “mirror sites” which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain copies of material originated at another location, usually in order to provide more widespread access to the resource. For example, one site might create a library of software, and 5 other sites might maintain mirrors of that library.
Mobile Development: This term describes the process of optimizing a website or landing page for mobile users, using specific coding and functionality, as well as design & usability.
Mobile Marketing: Multi-channel online marketing technique focused at reaching a specific audience on their smart phone, tablets, or any other related devices through websites, email, SMS and MMS, social media or mobile applications.
Mobile Optimization: The process of ensuring that visitors who access your site from mobile devices have an experience optimized for their device.
Model of Participatory: An instructional design system incorporating the participation of a program development team.
Model Release: The form giving permission to photograph or record someone’s voice or image.
Module: A lesson or unit of information.
Mood Programming: Maintaining a single approach or characteristic in broadcast programming.
Money Shots: The most important shots of a given project that will have the most impact on your audience.
Monitor: A television-like screen used in production and post production to check broadcast colors, safe zones, etc.
Monopod: Works the same as a Tripod, but only has a single extending and locking leg.
Montage: A sequence of video or images played together to represent an event or section of footage.
Morphing: This refers to a computer generated effect that makes one shape or object metamorphose into, or transition to, another object unlike the first. For example, a human face changes into an animal face.
Motion Effects: During editing and postproduction, still images can be made to move or look like the camera is zooming, panning, or tilting movements.
Mov.: The file format used by QuickTime for compressing audio and video for computer and Internet displays.
Movie Magic Budgeting: A software program designed specifically for budgeting movies.
MP3: The most popular method of compressing audio and video for computer and Internet displays.
MPEG: Moving Picture Experts Group. Standards for compressing video for recording on discs, hard drives, and the Internet.
MPEG-1: The standard for video CDs and audio MP3 compression.
MPEG-2: The standard for video DVD compression, high-definition compression for camcorders.
MPEG-4: A digital video compression format sometimes referred to as advanced video coding, or AVC. MPEG-4 is frequently used for compressing video for solid-state devices such as mobile phones and iPods.
Multiple Branching: A programmed instruction format in which different responses cause the viewer to be branched to different corresponding segments.
Music: A music track is created independently of production. Music videos begin with a defined sound track. Other programs have music added in postproduction to fit dialogue, sound effects, and mood.
MySpace Video: Introduced in 2007 as a similar video sharing site to YouTube.
Narration: The oral telling of a story, typically via a voiceover.
Narrative Filmmaking: A fictional filmmaking genre that tells a story.
Narrowcast: To distribute programming to a limited, well-defined audience.
NAS: Network Attached Storage. System of multiple hard drives, such as a RAID, that may be accessed by all terminals on a network.
Native Advertising: A type of advertising, mostly online, that matches the form and function of the platform upon which it appears. In many cases, it manifests as either an article or video, produced by an advertiser with the specific intent to promote a product, while matching the form and style which would otherwise be seen in the work of the platform’s editorial staff.
Nat Sound: The abbreviation for Natural Sound regarding ambient noise in a location or in a particular scene.
ND Gel: A clear grey lighting gel used to lower the intensity of lighting.
Needle Drop: A measure or unit of music determined by how many times a selection is played or the “needle dropped” on the record.
Net: Money paid to a media vehicle by an advertising agency after deducting the agency’s commission (also, slang for “network”).
Net Unduplicated Audience: The number of different people who are reached by a single issue of two or more publications (see Cumulative audience).
Network: (computer) Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more networks together and you have an internet.
Network: (broadcast) In broadcast, a grouping of stations; an organization that supplies programming to a group or chain of stations. Network Cooperative Program: A network program with provisions for inserting local commercials (see Cooperative program).
Network Option Time: Broadcast time on a station for which the network has the option of selling advertising.
Neutral Cutaways: Very useful shots that can be inserted almost anywhere in a scene because they aren’t very time or action specific. For example, a cutaway to a picture on the wall, a subject’s hand gestures, or a reaction shot of someone listening.
News Feed: A data format used for providing users with frequently updated content.
Newspaper Syndicate: A firm that sells special material such as features, photographs, comic strips, and cartoons, for publication in newspapers.
Next to Reading Matter: A print advertising position adjacent to news or editorial material; may be at premium rates.
Nielsen: The A.C. Nielsen Company; a firm engaged in local and national television ratings and other marketing research.
Nielsen Station Index (NSI): A rating service for individual television stations.
Nielsen Television Index (NTI): A national television rating ser- vice, primarily for network programming.
NLE: Short for “nonlinear editors.” Final Cut Pro, Avid, Premiere, and iMovie are all NLEs.
No Change In Rate (NCR or NCIR): Used when some other format or specification change has occurred.
Noddies: An Americanism referring to filming the reactions of subjects, interviewers and interviewees.
Noise: Disruptive camera noise caused by video static, gain, digital zoom and other electronic functions.
Non-Linear Editing: The ability a modern day editors has to access digital footage on a computer or device and piece together a production (in particular different scenes) in any order they wish.
Nonbroadcast Video: Programming designed for limited access rather than broadcast distribution.
Nonexclusive Rights: The right to use a work, but not to prevent anyone else from obtaining the rights also.
Nose Room: The distance between a subject and the edge of the frame.
NTSC: See “SD/Standard Definition.”
Objectives (marketing): Goals set by a business that should be achieved within a specific time frame in relation to the promotion of its goods or services.
O/C: An abbreviation for both On Camera and Off Camera.
Offer : A proposal to sell or buy a specific product or service under specific conditions.
Offline: Media that has been deleted or removed from a computer hard drive, but whose data remains intact. (Data includes logging information such as name, format, timecodes, etc.)
Off-Line Editing: Editing using inexpensive systems, allowing you to do “straight” editing only without special effects or without the control of a computer interface.
Off-The-Shelf Programs: Commercially produced generic programs that can be rented or purchased.
On-Disc Printing: Rather than use paper labels, discs with an inkjet printable surface allow label art to be printed directly on the disc.
One-liners: Short, usually one sentence scripts read by talent. One liners are used in a final edit to punctuate portions of the script.
One Time Only (OTO): A commercial announcement that runs only once.
One-Time Rate: See Open rate.
Online: Media contained on a computer’s hard drive available for use.
On-Line Editing: Editing using VTR’s with a computer interface, or with studio-type mixing and switching equipment.
On-The-Air: A term used to mean that a particular device is “live” or its output is being recorded or broadcast. Also called on-line.
One-Inch: The width of videotape within which there are three formats: Type A, Type B, and Type C.
Open-Ended Question: A question that requires more than a short answer, giving the respondent an opportunity to express opinions.
Opening Up The Lens: This practice refers to the altering of the camera’s aperture to allow more light to enter the lens.
Open Source Software: Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is available to the users so that they may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes. There are many types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the licensing term under which (altered) copies of the source code may (or must be) redistributed.
OTS: Over the shoulder. Camera is placed behind the interviewer and is focused on the interviewee. Sometimes the back of the shoulder and side of the head of the interviewer are visible in the frame.
Out Point: The end time code of a shot or edit.
Out-Cue: The end of a given portion of tape.
Overhead: The costs of running the physical facility.
Over Modulate: Referring to the distortion typically caused by having high levels of audio or video. Over Modulation cannot be fixed in post-production.
Overrun: Additional copies of an advertisement beyond the number actually ordered or needed; extra copies to replace damaged outdoor posters or transit car cards.
Over The Shoulder Shot: The view of the primary subject with the back of another person’s shoulder and head in the foreground.
OVP: An abbreviation for Online Video Platform i.e. YouTube or Vimeo.
PA: An occupation term referring to a Production Assistant.
Pacing: The timing and segmenting of a program to control the rate of presentation.
Package: A series of broadcast programs that an advertiser may sponsor.
Package Plan Discount: A spot television discount plan for buying a certain number of spots, usually within a one-week period.
Packager: An individual or company that produces packaged program series; also called “syndicator.”
Page Impression: See “page view.”
Page View (PV): A request to load a single HTML file (web page) of an internet site.
Paid Circulation: The number of print copies that are purchased by audience members.
PAL: Phase Alternate Line. The video system used in Europe and other countries. PAL videotapes and discs need to be converted to NTSC for viewing the United States.
Pan: Horizontal camera pivot, right to left or left to right from a stationary position.
Panel: A single outdoor billboard.
Paper Edit: A document consisting of transcribed storyboards of your footage, which can be organized to create a paper version of your final cut. This document is great for the editing stage.
Partial Showing: An outdoor showing of less than 25.
Participation: A commercial announcement within a broadcast program, as compared with one scheduled between programs; also called “participating announcement.”
Participation Program: A broadcast program with each segment sponsored by a different advertiser.
Partners: YouTube’s major content partners, allowing partners to monetize their videos.
Pass-Along Readers: Readers of a publication who acquire a copy other than by purchase or subscription (see Secondary audience).
PA System: Public address system of microphones, amplifiers, and speakers, usually installed in an auditorium or meeting room.
Pay Cable: Cable television programming for which the audience must pay or subscribe.
Pay-Per-Click Search Engine (or PPC): A search engine in which the ranking of your Web site is determined by the amount you are paying for each click from that search engine to your site. Think of Pay-Per-Click search engines as a low-cost advertising method.
Pay Per View: Streaming or downloadable videos that require payment to view.
Pedestal: Camera moves vertically lower or raises the camera higher whilst maintaining camera level.
Pelican Cases: Popular industry-standard hard plastic cases designed to store and protect film and video equipment during transit. Pelican cases are water resistant and are typically used with foam.
Penetration: The percentage of households that have a broadcast receiving set; a measure of the degree of advertising effectiveness; the percentage of households that have been exposed to an advertising campaign.
People Meter: Slang for a broadcast ratings measurement device that records individual audience members who are present during a program.
Per Issue Rate: A special magazine advertising rate that is deter- mined by the number of issues that are used during the contract period; similar to a frequency discount, except not based on the number of advertisements, but rather on the number of issues in which an advertising campaign appears.
Piggyback: Slang for two of a sponsor’s commercial announcements that are presented back-to-back within a single commercial time segment; for example, two 30-second commercials in a 60-second time slot; also called “double spotting.”
Photomontage: A video DVD of photos combined with music. This is usually produced at a video editing workstation by a professional video editor. Images frequently have dissolves for smooth transitions, and movements such as zooms, pans, and tilts may be applied.
Photoshop: An image editing application created by Adobe.
PHP: – (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) PHP is a programming language used almost exclusively for creating software that is part of a web site. The PHP language is designed to be intermingled with the HTML that is used to create web pages. Unlike HTML, the PHP code is read and processed by the web server software (HTML is read and processed by the web browser software.)
Pick Up Pattern: Outlines the directions in which a microphone best captures and records sound. Typical patterns are cardioid, hypercardioid and omni.
Pilot: A sample production of a proposed broadcast program series.
Pin-Registered Camera: A very precise film camera that exposes images in exact registration from one frame to the next.
Pinterest: A web and mobile application company that operates a software system designed to discover information online, mainly using images and on a shorter scale, GIFs and videos.
Pitch/Pitching: Pitching is talking not writing. It is part of the communicating and selling of ideas in the entertainment industries.
Pixels: The little red, green, and blue microdots that make up the image on a TV or monitor screen. The more pixels there are, the sharper and clearer the picture will be.
Pixillation: The cutting out of a certain percentage of frames in a sequence to produce a fast-motion, jumpy effect.
Plans Board: An advertising agency committee that reviews campaign plans for clients.
Playback: Viewing or listening back to recorded video/audio.
Playlist: YouTube allows for videos to be categorized into a flowing list of video content.
Plug: A free mention of a product or service.
Podcast: An audio show that is broadcast over the web. Users can listen to these shows on a digital music player or a computer. Podcasts can include talk shows, music, or other types of audio.
Point-of-Purchase Advertising (POP): Promotions in retail stores, usually displays.
Point Of View Shot: Shot perspective whereby the video camera assumes a subject’s viewpoint.
POP: The abbreviation for Point of Presence, which typically refers to the location of a server or Content Delivery Network.
Popularity Ranking of Search Results: Some search engines rank the order in which search results appear primarily by how many other sites link to each page (a kind of popularity vote based on the assumption that other pages would create a link to the “best” pages). Google is the best example of this. See also Subject-Based Ranking.
Portal: Usually used as a marketing term to described a Web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see when using the Web. Typically a “Portal site” has a catalog of web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also offer email and other service to entice people to use that site as their main “point of entry” (hence “portal”) to the Web.
Position: The location of an advertisement on a page; the time when a program or commercial announcement will run in a broadcast; special positions may cost premium prices.
Positive Feedback: Information confirming that a response was correct.
Post-Production: Encompasses the entire editing and video-finalization process. Includes logging and capturing, editing, color correction, animation, sound design, voice over, encoding, dubs, etc.
Posttest: An evaluation taking place after a subject has been exposed to some treatment or material.
Potential Audience: The maximum possible audience.
Pots: Another name for the knobs on audio equipment.
Practical Lights: Aesthetic lights that appear as part of your on screen set.
Pre-Amp: An audio device similar to but simpler than a mixer that is used to boost, control, and/or transform audio signals.
Preemptible Rate: An advertising rate that is subject to cancellation by another advertiser’s paying a higher rate, usually in broadcast; the protection period varies by station:, and ranges from no notice to two-weeks notice or more (see Fixed rate).
Preemption: Cancellation of a broadcast program for special material or news; the right of a station or network to cancel a regular pro- gram to run a special program; a commercial announcement that may be replaced if another advertiser pays a higher or “fixed” rate.
Pre-Light and Setup: The process of preparing for a video production shoot in advance. Involves building a set and putting up lights, cameras, sound, and other production equipment.
Premise: The term refers to a compact statement of the essential idea of a movie or program. It embodies the essential conflict or dilemma that will drive the plot and the characters.
Premium: An item that is offered to help promote a product or ser- vice; a higher-cost advertising rate (see Premium price).
Premium Price: A special advertising rate, usually higher, for special positions or other considerations.
Preprint: Advertising material that is printed in advance of the regular press run, perhaps on another printing press with greater capability for color, and so forth.
Pre-Production: Encompasses all the planning that goes into a video production shoot. May involve scripting, storyboarding, location scouts, pre-interviews, pre-light and setup, scheduling, etc.
Pre Roll: The wise practice of starting to record a few seconds before a take begins.
Pretest: An assessment of student’s entering abilities or opinions before they’re exposed to some treatment or material.
Primary Audience: Individuals in the print media audience who purchase or subscribe to the publication (see Secondary audience).
Primary Household: A household in which a publication has been subscribed to or purchased.
Primary Listening Area: The geographic area in which a broadcast transmission is static-free and easily received.
Primary Readers: Those persons who purchase or subscribe to a publication; readers in primary households.
Prime Time: The hours when viewing is at its peak on television; usually the evening hours.
Private Video: A YouTube video that has a restricted viewership.
Private Video Network: A video playback system set up by an organization to communicate to its various branch offices or affiliates.
Processing Time: The time it takes for a video to become playable after upload to the Internet.
Producer: A cinematic role that is responsible for both editorial and production duties.
Product Allocation: The various products that are assigned to specific times or locations in an advertiser’s schedule, when more than one brand is advertised; the amount of the advertising budget that is allocated to individual products.
Production House: A company that rents out video studio and/or portable production gear.
Production Insurance: Insurance that covers you and your crew from liabilities as a result of any property damage, theft or loss, and personal death or injury caused by your production.
Production Value: The professional look of a production.
Product Protection: A time separation between the airing of broadcast commercial announcements for competitive goods or services.
Profile: A term used interchangeably with “audience composition” to describe the demographic characteristics of audiences.
Program Compatibility: Broadcast programming or editorial content that is suitable for the product or service that is being promoted; suitability of the advertisement or campaign theme with program content.
Program Control: Program design that assumes the program will be viewed straight through without intervention of an instructor or student.
Program Development Team: A group of people representing clients, content experts, media professionals, and representative audience members who together develop a program.
Program Format: The style in which a subject is covered: documentary, interview, demonstration, and so on.
Progressive: A video display method which scans and displays lines of resolution in order, top to bottom (1,2,3, etc.) for each frame of video displayed on your television set.
Progressive Proofs: A test press run of each color in the printing process.
Progressive Scanning: A method for displaying, storing, or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence.
Projected Audience: The number of audience members calculated from a sample survey of audience size; the number of broadcast viewers, either in total or per receiving set, based on the sample for the rating percentages.
Promoted Videos: An AdWords campaign for videos on YouTube, where advertisers pay to have their video placed highly in search rankings.
Promotion: The advancement of a product, idea, or point of view through publicity and/or advertising.
Prompter: The generic term for the popular brand TelePrompTer. Prompters display the script for the talent to read. The text is displayed onto a clear glass panel that may be placed in front of the camera lens.
ProRes 442: An intraframe-only codec that is part of Apple Final Cut Studio. Designed for lossy compression of HD, it is designed to be simpler to decode than distribution-oriented formats such as H.264. It is comparable to Avid’s DNxHD codec, which has the same purpose and uses similar bit rates.
Prosumer: A cross between consumer and professional equipment. Frequently used to distinguish a three-chip camcorder from a consumer, single-chip camcorder.
Proxy Editing: Creating a low bit rate copy of your HD source footage that uses less computer resources. After editing at that low resolution, the editor switches to HD and renders the finished video in full quality.
Public Domain: The status of not being copyrighted.
Publicity: Media attention or notice given to something or someone.
Publisher’s Statement: The certified circulation of a publication, attested by the publisher and subject to audit.
Pull Focus/Rack Focus: Racking focus, also known as pulling focus, refers to a deliberate change of focus executed by twisting the focus ring on the barrel of a lens. This technique is typically used to shift attention from one character to another when they are speaking.
Pulp Magazine: A publication, usually printed low-quality paper, with sensational editorial material; for example, a mystery, detective, or “TV/movie” magazine.
Quadruplex: A method of videotape scanning using four heads, found on two-inch machines.
Qualified Circulation: The distribution of a publication that is restricted to individuals who meet certain requirements; for example, member physicians are qualified to receive the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Qualified Reader: A person who can prove readership of a publication.
Quantity Discount: A lower advertising rate for buying a certain amount of space or time.
Quarter-Run: One-fourth of the car cards that are required for a full run in transit; a card in every fourth transit system vehicle.
Quick List: A YouTube function that allows users to create and delete playlist quickly and easily via the “+” symbol.
Quick Time: A computer program from Apple that allows audio/video to be displayed on home and office computers. The file extension is .mov.
Quintile: One-fifth of a group; usage in advertising often refers to audience members who have been divided into five equal groups (quintiles), ranging from the heaviest to the lightest media usage levels.
QR-Code: this is a bar-code like image that is computer generated, when the QR Code is scanned by a Smartphone Application, or other device, the QR Code contains a URL within it that directs the smartphone to a webpage, or video. QR Codes are also used in conjuction with iMobile Microsites.
Raccoon Eyes: A lighting error when high angle lights cast shadows under the subjects eyes.
Rack Focus: Shifting focus between subjects in the background and foreground.
Rate Book: A printed book that is designed to provide advertising rates for several media vehicles; for example, Standard Rate and Data Service.
Rate Card: A printed listing of advertising rates for a single media vehicle.
Rate Differential: The difference between the local and the national advertising rates in a vehicle.
Rate Guarantee: Media commitment that an advertising rate will not be increased during a certain calendar period.
Rate Holder: A small print advertisement used by an advertiser to meet contract requirements for earning a discounted advertising rate.
Rate Protection: The length of time that an advertiser is guaranteed a certain advertising rate without an increase.
Rating: The percentage of the potential broadcast audience that is tuned to a particular station, network, or program: the audience of a vehicle expressed as a percentage of the total population of an area.
Rating Point: A rating of one percent: one percent of the potential audience; the sum of the ratings of multiple advertising insertions; for example, two advertisements with a rating of 10 percent each will total 20 rating points.
RCA:Very common yellow, white and red cables used with video equipment; yellow = video, white = left and red = right.
Reach: The total audience that a medium actually reaches; the size of the audience with which a vehicle communicates; the total number of people in an advertising media audience; the total percentage of the target group that is actually covered by an advertising campaign.
Reaction Shot: A shot showing how a subject/character is responding to an event.
Reader Interest: An expression of interest through inquiries, coupons, and so forth; the level of interest in various products.
Readership: The percent or number of persons who read a publication or advertisement.
Reading Notice: A print advertisement that is intended to resemble editorial matter.
Real Time: This setting allows you to share the video you are watching with your friends.
Re-Ask: An interviewing technique used to get the same response from a subject, but allow the film team to capture it from a different angle.
Rebate: A payment that is returned by the media vehicle to an advertiser who has overpaid, usually because of earning a lower rate than that originally contracted.
Re-enactments/Recreations: A dramatic acting out of a significant event.
Refresh Rate: The number of times per second an image is scanned on a screen to form the picture. This number is measured in units called Hertz (Hz). A screen with a 60Hz refresh rate scans the image on-screen 60 times per second to form an image.
Relevancy Ranking of Search Results: The most common method for determining the order in which search results are displayed. Each search tool uses its own unique algorithm. Most use “fuzzy and” combined with factors such as how often your terms occur in documents, whether they occur together as a phrase, and whether they are in title or how near the top of the text. Popularity is another ranking system.
Reminder Advertising: An advertisement, usually brief, that is intended to keep the name of a product or service before the public; often, a supplement to other advertising.
Remote: A video shoot captured on location, outside of a studio environment.
Render: The process of calculating effects in a video editing program to produce final video output or ability to view.
Rep: A media representative (slang for a national sales representative. Replacement: A substitute for a broadcast commercial announcement that did not clear the original order, that is, that was not broadcast as specified on the advertiser’s order.
Research: Any and all work you do to learn more about your subject as you prepare to shoot your video.
Resolution: The size of the image in pixels. In camera and TV specs, resolution is listed as the number of horizontal pixels x vertical pixels. For HD, there are usually 1080 or 720 vertical pixels.
Responsive Web Design (RWD): An approach to web design which makes web pages render well on a variety of devices and window or screen sizes
Res Up: The practice of making low resolution footage (typically created to save space) into high resolution in order to make it suitable for production use.
Retail Trading Zone (RTZ): The geographic area in which most of a market’s population makes the majority of their retail purchases.
Retention (customers): A company’s ability to keep a customer loyal to their product or service.
Retweet: A re-posted tweet from another Twitter user.
Reverse Shot: Capturing the same action at different angles to show a counter viewpoint.
RF: The abbreviation for Radio Frequency.
Rights Reserved: Stock footage, photos, or illustrations that may be purchased for licensing. The purchaser agrees to use the material only in a certain media or market area and only for a certain amount of time. Typically, the user must re-license the material after one year if they wish to continue using it.
Roadblock or Roadblocking: Slang term for placing television announcements at the same time on two or more networks, or at the same time on several stations in a single market; used as a remedy to channel switching during a commercial break.
ROI: ROI, or return on investment, is a calculation used to determine the relative efficacy of an ad campaign in financial terms, in particular whether or not an ad campaign has generated more or less new revenue than it cost. Due to the direct response nature of many internet ad campaigns, it may be possible to determine ROI with much greater precision than, for example, a television commercial. The response to broader, branding-style campaigns may be more imprecise.
Rolling Shutter: Rolling shutter refers to the method that CMOS cameras use to scan an image by “rolling” or moving the shutter across part of the image, so that not all part of the image are recorded at the same time, even though they are played back as a single frame.
RON: A RON, or run of network, buy means that an advertiser purchases banner inventory across an ad network’s entire range of sites. This type of buy is often used for large-scale branding or awareness campaigns, and usually commands a significantly lower CPM rate than buys which are targeted demographically or by category or site.
ROP Color: Color printing that is done during the regular press run.
Rotoscoping: The technique of manually creating a matte for an element on live-action footage so it may be composited over another background.
Rough Cut: Refers to the first pass of video editing on a video project. Often, a rough cut will not include graphics, transitions, color correction, or sound design. It is usually just video clips chosen and arranged in rough order.
Rove: A loose style of handheld camerawork, most common in reality TV and some scripted dramas where the camera is continually moving and shifting slightly (as if hovering) as opposed to traditional handheld camerawork where the objective would be to hold the camera as steady as possible.
Royalty Free: Stock footage, photos, or illustrations that may be purchased at a one-time price and used at any time repeatedly in various medias and market areas.
Rule of Thirds: A composition rule for framing shots whereby the camera is divided into thirds horizontally and vertically to form a naughts and crosses pattern. Subjects should be framed at the intersection of any two or more lines.
Run and Gun: An American phrase referring to the Guerrilla style shooting that occurs in hectic, unpredictable filming locations.
Running Footage: Video of new cars driving in and around scenic highways, cities, and suburban areas. Can be purchased from the auto manufacturer using a dealer’s Adplanner.
Run of Paper (ROP): Advertising that is positioned anywhere in a publication, with no choice of a specific place for the advertisement to appear.
Run of Schedule (ROS): Broadcast commercial announcements that can be scheduled at the station’s discretion anytime; in some cases, the advertiser can specify or request certain time periods; for example, ROS 10:00 am – 4:00 pm Monday – Friday.
SaaS: Software as a service over the Internet. Rather than purchase the software, the user is licensed to use the software through a subscription or based on the usage, similar to a traditional utility service such as eletricity.
Safe Title Area: On a video monitor, the center 80% of the picture within which text should be limited. Some playback monitors cut off the edges of the text, so a safe title area is used when creating text during postproduction.
Safety Training Video: A video or DVD that shows exact procedures for security or safety training. Rather than read a manual, employees learn from the video, which is the next best thing to a live class.
S.A.G: Screen Actors Guild.
S.A.G Paperwork: Very important forms required by the Screen Actors Guild whenever an actor in their professional union works on a production.
Sales Event: A time sensitive occasion where products or services are sold at a discounted rate.
Sales Motivation Video: Training video used to teach selling techniques and to stimulate viewers to improve their sales.
SAN: Storage area network. A system to attach external storage devices to servers so the devices appear as attached locally to the operating system.
Satellite Station: A broadcast station in a fringe reception area, to boost the effective range of the main station’s signal.
Saturation (media): An advertising media schedule of wide reach and high frequency, concentrated during a time period to achieve maximum coverage and impact (see Flight).
Saturation (video/photography): The depth or richness of a colour.
Scan Converter: A device that converts one video standard to another.
Scanning Area: The area of a shot actually scanned or reproduced by the camera.
Scatter Plan: Commercial announcements that are scheduled during a variety of times in broadcast media; usually, the advertiser is permitted to specify general time periods during which the commercials will be scheduled; also called “scatter package”.
Scene: The scene is the basic unit of visual narrative for the screenplay. It has unity of time and place. A new scene begins when either time or place changes.
Scene Detection: A automated process software programs use to separate video footage into clips by scanning time codes.
Scene Outline: This term refers to a way a writer might compose a visual narrative by listing scenes rather than writing a treatment.
Schedule: A list of advertisements or media to be used in a campaign; a chart of the advertisements that have been planned.
Schedule and Estimate: A data form submitted by an advertising agency to the advertiser prior to a firm media purchase; it contains price and audience goals and a proposed schedule.
Schema (Database): A Database Schema refers to the organization of data to create a blueprint of how a database will be constructed. Also known as Database Outline.
Scout: An initial location visit to determine video/audio production needs.
Screen Captions: Titles placed at the bottom of frames to provide subtitles or information on the subject/character on screen.
Screenplay: A screenplay or script is the translation of the treatment into a visual blueprint for production layering end to end the particular scenes employing the specific descriptive language of the medium to describe what is to be seen on the screen and heard on the sound track.
Scrims: Metal fixtures used to adjust light intensity. Typically in a full or half circle shape.
Script: A script is a type of programming language that can be used to fetch and display Web pages. There are many kinds and uses of scripts on the Web. They can be used to create all or part of a page, and communicate with searchable databases. Forms (boxes) and many interactive links, which respond differently depending on what you enter, all require some kind of script language. When you find a question mark (?) in the URL of a page, some kind of script command was used in generating and/or delivering that page. Most search engine spiders are instructed not to crawl pages from scripts, although it is usually technically possible for them to do so (see Invisible Web for more information).
Scroll: Text that moves up or down within a frame of video.
SD/Standard Definition: Also called NTSC, it is a United States video standard defined by the FCC as 720×480 pixels at a frame rate of 29.97. (DV NTSC is defined as 720×486 pixels.)
SDHC Card: Small, relatively cheap reusable flash media cards used to record audio and video. Common in most consumer and prosumer video cameras.
Search: The box at the top of every web Browser or Video hosting website used to find video and other online content.
Search Engine: A program that searches for and identifies items in a database that correspond to keywords or characters specified by the user, used especially for finding particular sites online.
SECAM: A video standards used in France and several other countries.
Secondary Audience: The members of a print media audience who do not subscribe to or purchase the publication (see Pass-along readers).
Secondary Listening Area: The outlying area in which broadcast trans- missions are subject to fading or static; in television, the Grade 3 signal contour.
Second Generation: A copy of a first-generation original tape.
Security Certificate: A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.
SEG: Screen Extras Guild.
Segue: The visual journey from the transition of one video sequence to another.
Segue To: This term means to cross fade two audio events. It is the audio equivalent of the video mix. You do not need to write this into the audio side of a script every time you use a mix to transition. It is understood by all involved that one goes with the other.
Self-Liquidating Point-of-Purchase: Display for which the retailer pays part or all of the costs.
Self-Liquidating Premium: An item for which the cost is paid by the customer; the price that the consumer pays covers the manufacturing cost of the premium.
Self-Mailer: A direct-mail item that is mailed without an envelope.
SEM – (Search Engine Marketing): A form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages.
SEO – (Search Engine Optimization): The practice of designing web pages so that they rank as high as possible in search results from search engines.
Sequence: An arrangement of video and audio clips, graphics, and other elements within a non-linear video editing application.
SERP: The abbreviation for Search Engine Results Page.
Server, Web Server: A computer running that software, assigned an IP address, and connected to the Internet so that it can provide documents via the World Wide Web. Also called HOST computer. Web servers are the closest equivalent to what in the print world is called the “publisher” of a print document. An important difference is that most print publishers carefully edit the content and quality of their publications in an effort to market them and future publications. This convention is not required in the Web world, where anyone can be a publisher; careful evaluation of Web pages is therefore mandatory. Also called a “Host.”
Server-Side: Something that operates on the “server” computer (providing the Web page), as opposed to the “client” computer (which is you or someone else viewing the Web page). Usually it is a program or command or procedure or other application causes dynamic pages or animation or other interaction.
Sets in Use: The percentage of households that have broadcast receiving sets that are operating at one time within a market area; because many households have more than one receiving set, “households using television” and “households using radio” are the current common terms.
SFX: Stands for Sound Effects. A wide range of sounds added to video or audio tracks to help bring a story to life or punctuate critical moments.
Share of Audience: The percentage of sets-in-use (and thus of HUT or of HUR) that are tuned to a particular station, network, or program (slang “share”).
Share of Voice (SOV): The proportion of advertising expenditures that are made for a brand versus competitive brands.
Shoot: (n) A video production. (v) The act of producing video.
Shooting Ratio: The ratio of total tape shot that actually gets used in the final production.
Shooting Script: A writer builds a screenplay out of scenes, which is its fundamental building block. The director has to compose a scene out of shots. This means a director has to create a shooting script out of the screenplay. The director has both the right and the responsibility to break down the scene into camera set-ups or shots that will cover the action of the scene.
Shopping Newspaper: A newspaper-like publication that is devoted mainly to advertising, often distributed free to shoppers or to households (slang “shopper”).
Short: A loose or bad connection in any cable that results in the cable not clearly and consistently carrying an audio or video signal, which generally will result in static, pops, and dropouts of the signal.
Short Rate: Money that is owed to a media vehicle by an advertiser to offset the rate differential between the earned rate and the lower contracted rate.
Shot: A shot describes the way a lens produces an image. It frames the subject in the viewfinder and is usually defined in two dimensions by how much or little of the human figure is included in the frame. It also has a third dimension that is defined by the foreground and background in the frame. The shot is the basic unit of narrative for the camera and for the director who shoots the movie.
Shot Sheet: A rundown of shots in sequence for a given camera for a studio taping.
Shotgun: An alternative name for hypercardioid mics that have a very narrow pick-up pattern, focusing on sound from one direction.
Shotlist: A Shotlist works the same as a Log Sheet.
Shoulder Graphic: An on-screen graphic places above a subjects shoulder.
Showing: The number of outdoor posters that are necessary to reach a certain percentage of the mobile population in a market within a specified time; many outdoor markets are now purchased by gross rating points (see Full showing and Gross rating points).
Show Print: A print or dub from an edit master that embodies the finished program as it will be distributed.
SHTML: usually seen as .shtml. An file name extension that identifies web pages containing SSI commands.
Shutter Speed: Refers to the amount of time the camera’s shutter stays open to expose each frame of video.
Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The ratio of a desired signal to an unwanted signal (static or noise).
Single Branching: A programmed-instruction format in which all wrong answers are treated in the same way: by branching to a single given segment.
Single System Audio: Audio that is recorded on the camera at the same time as picture.
Site or Website: This term is often used to mean “web page,” but there is supposed to be a difference. A web page is a single entity, one URL, one file that you might find on the Web. A “site,” properly speaking, is an location or gathering or center for a bunch of related pages linked to from that site. For example, the site for the present tutorial is the top-level page “Internet Resources.” All of the pages associated with it branch out from there — the web searching tutorial and all its pages, and more. Together they make up a “site.” When we estimate there are 5 billion web pages on the Web, we do not mean “sites.” There would be far fewer sites.
Sixty: Slang for a one-minute broadcast commercial announcement.
Skyscraper: A common banner ad format. Skyscraper ads are most commonly 120×600 pixels, although a relatively new variation on the theme, the wide skyscraper, is gaining ground. These are 160×600. Ad networks offering skyscrapers include Burst Media, which sells 160 and 120 pixel skyscrapers, and Tribal Fusion and Fastclick, which offer the standard 120 pixel size (although Tribal Fusion has a fairly limited skyscraper inventory).
Slate: This is a device used to sync pictures and sound as well as mark particular scenes and takes recorded during production.
Slave: The mchien recording the output of a master machine.
Slogan: a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising.
Slug: Text that is edited into a project as a note or reminder for those working in post-production, projection or broadcast usually to denote things such as titles, audio tracks used, or unfinished elements.
Slug Line: A slug line is the accepted convention for summarizing the technical information that defines the place and time of a scene.
Small and Medium-sized Businesses (SMB) or Enterprises (SME): Businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.
Small-Format Video: Smaller, less expensive video equipment generally used for nonbroadcast purposes.
Smartbomb: A five second television spot, usually run in prime time. More affordable then longer ads for the same timeslots, these are effective at delivering a very short, targeted message.
SMPTE: Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. This long-standing group of film and TV engineers develop industry standards.
SMPTE-Format Video: An address in digital time readouts used to identify exact places on a tape.
Snapchat: An image messaging and multimedia mobile application.
Snoots: Cylindrical inserts that fit in front of lights to reduce the width of the beam to highlight a specific subject.
Soap Opera: Slang for a continuing broadcast dramatic serial, usually a daytime program.
Social Media: Computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
Social Networking Site: A social networking site is a web site specifically focused on the building and verifying of social networks for whatever purpose. Many social networking services are also blog hosting services. (i.e. facebook.com, twitter.com, myspace.com. etc).
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers: A long-standing group of film and TV engineers who develop industry standards. Abbreviated as SMPTE.
Soft Money: Grant or contract money that is not guaranteed from year to year.
Soft Touch Marketing: See Grassroots.
SOT: The abbreviation of Sound On Tape.
Soundbites: Short audio clips, usually edited out of longer interviews.
Sound Blankets: Thick, quilted blankets used to dampen echoes caused by hard room surfaces and muffle unwanted noise.
Sound Up: The practice of increasing the volume of sound in a segment of video.
Space Buyer: The person who is responsible for purchasing advertising in newspapers, magazine, and business publications, and sometimes outdoor and transit (see Media buyer).
Space Position Value: A measure of the effectiveness of an outdoor poster location.
Spec: A project not commissioned by a client, produced for presentation or illustrative purposes only.
Spectacular: A large outdoor lighted sign.
Speed: This term refers to the moment shortly after you press the record button when a camera has finished its pre-roll and reached the necessary speed to record both video and audio efficiently.
Spill: Unwanted light that is infiltrating any aspect of your scene other than the targeted area.
Spill Light: Any excess, unwanted, or uncontrolled light that appears in shot.
Splashsite: This term refers to the proprietary iCastingWorks Webpage construction containing graphical elements, form submission capabilities, and Streaming Video.
Split Run: Testing two or more print advertisements by running each only to a portion of the audience, usually in a single issue.
Sponsor: An advertiser who buys the exclusive right to the time available for commercial announcements in a given broadcast program or segment.
Sponsorships: Sponsorships, as opposed to traditional ad display, generally occur when an advertiser pays to advertise on all or most of a specific section of a website or email newsletter. Advertisers usually prefer the sponsorship model when a website offers content related to, but not competitive with, the products or services offered by the sponsoring company. A sponsorship may take the form of traditional advertising banners, integrated sponsored content, text messages (“this section sponsored by…”) or the like.
Spot: The purchase of broadcast slots by geographic or station breakdowns; the purchase of slots at certain times, usually during station breaks; the term “spot” can refer to the time used for the commercial announcement or it can refer to the announcement itself.
SSD: Solid state drive. These are hard drives that use flash memory similar to P2 and SxS cards. They have no moving parts, so they are sturdier and not as susceptible to the malfunctions that can occur with hard disk drives which have spinning disks.
Staging Area: An area set aside on a set or location for a department to exclusively use as homebase to store and set-up all their equipment and supplies.
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA): See Metropolitan area.
Standards Conversion: The duplication of a tape into another video standard – for instance, NTSC to PAL or PAL to SECAM.
Stand Up: A term used in News Reporting where a reporter is shot in long/mid shot and presenting to the camera.
Statement Of Work: A document that describes the work that you are proposing to do and clearly spells out what you will do as a producer/director, the basics of how it will be accomplished, and how much it will cost your clients.
SteadiCam: A camera-stabilizing device used to get smooth fluid handheld camera shots.
Step: To go through a program frame by frame.
Sticks: An alternative word used for Tripods.
Still-Frame: The capturing and playback of a single video frame to stop or “freeze” action.
Stills: Refers to stationary images such as photographs or paused video.
Stings: Often found in TV productions, Stings are used to promote upcoming events.
Stock Footage/Images: Video footage, photos, or illustrations owned by a stock footage company that may be purchased for indefinate use or licensed for a specific use, market area, or amount of time. See Rights Reserved or Royalty Free.
Stopping Down: The act of making a shot darker by closing the lens aperture.
Storage: Frequently used to mean the devices and data connected to the computer through input/output operations – that is, hard disk and tape systems and other forms of storage that don’t include computer memory and other in-computer storage.
Storyboard: A series of sketches or pictures to illustrate a concept or script that will later be executed with video.
Station Break: The time between broadcast programs to permit station identification and spot announcements; slang for a 20-second broadcast announcement.
Station Clearance: See Clear Time.
Station Identification: The announcement of station call letters, usually with broadcast frequency or channel, and station location.
Station Option Time: A broadcast time for which the station has the option of selling advertising.
Station Posters: Advertisements consisting of posters in transit stations.
Stream: This term has two meanings; the stream of data which is transmitted over a network to allow for the play back of a video and it also refers to watching streams that other YouTube users are watching.
Streaming Video: Video that may be viewed from a website but not stored on the user’s computer. Streaming videos usually start playing faster than downloadable videos.
Streeters: An Americanism referring to getting audio interviews off general members of the public.
Strip programming: A broadcast program or commercial that is scheduled at the same time of day on successive days of the week, either Monday through Friday or Monday through Sunday (see Across the Board).
Studio Production: A video shoot done in a studio.
Style Sheet: A general term for the written description of the look and feel of various visual and graphic elements such as lower thirds and main titles, transitions, on-screen graphics, how interviews are framed and lit, color palette, style of cinematography etc.
S/U: The abbreviation for Sound Up.
Subject-Based Popularity Ranking of Search Results: A variation on popularity ranking in which the links in pages on the same subject are used to in ranking search results. Used by Ask.com.
Subject to Non-Renewal (SNR): Commercial time that is available for purchase if the current advertiser does not renew.
Subscription: This feature allows you to stay up to date with new videos from users on the YouTube site.
Summative Evaluation: Assessment of the final product.
Sunday Supplement: A newspaper section in magazine format; also called “magazine supplement” or “magazine section” or simply “supplement”.
Super: The abbreviation of Superimpose, often used to refer to the editing of images on screen.
Super Tech: A production occupation referring to Supervising Technicians.
Superimposition: A superimposition is simply the mix or dissolve mixed into the midprinter light or midfader position and then out. Beginners often go to unnecessary lengths to describe the way titles superimpose on picture or a background. A sentence can be reduced to; super titles over black, super titles over LS of street or super name under CU of face.
Surveillance Video: Video that is recorded passively or secretly.
Sustaining Period: A period of time during an advertising campaign when advertisements are used to remind the audience of the product or service or of the campaign; often, a time of reduced advertising expenditures following the introductory flight.
S Video: A analogue cable used to transmit high quality video signals between cameras and monitors.
Sweep: The period of the year when a ratings service measures the broadcast audience in the majority of the markets throughout the country; for example, surveys that are scheduled for November 2-24 would be referred to as the “November sweep”.
Switcher: A member of the production team who is in charge of switching between production sources.
SxS Card: Digital media cards used by some Sony model cameras, including the Sony EX-1, Sony EX3, and the Sony F3.
Sync Track: A track on a tape of control pulses used to stabilize playback of the tape.
Syndicated Program: Broadcast program that is sold to individual stations, rather than appearing on a network.
Syndicator: Television program distributor who works with reruns or new programs on a market-to-market basis (see Packager).
Tag: Dealer identification, usually added to the end of a broadcast commercial announcement to indicate where the product or service being advertised can be purchased in the local market.
Tag Line: (See slogan.)
Take: A Take is the footage shot from when you press Record on a camera to when you Press stop.
Talent: An actor or extra who appears in audio, video, or photos. Can be paid or unpaid.
Talent Release: A form signed by an actor or extra that grants permission for a production company or other client to use their image and voice. These must be signed by any and all video participants with no exceptions.
Talking Heads: A production consisting of static shots of people talking.
Tally Light: A film term referring to the red light present on a camera during recording.
Tape To DVD/CD/HDD/Flash Drive Transfers: Tape is dead, or they may wear out soon. Hard drives, flash drives, and discs are designed for archival storage and are easier to search through than tapes.
Targeting, Ad Targeting, Targeted, Targeted Ads: Targeting refers to the means by which advertisers attempt to reach a desired audience through choice of category (in an ad network), choice of web site, choice of demographic, geographic location, or whatever other criteria the advertiser finds interesting. Targeted ads command higher CPM rates than non-targeted ads, with the most finely targeted, site-specific, usually earning the highest rate.
Target Group: Those persons to whom a campaign is directed; those individuals with similar characteristics who are prospects for a product or service; also called “consumer profile”.
Target Market: The geographic area or areas to which a campaign is directed; the areas where a product is being sold or introduced; also called “market profile”.
Target Profile: A demographic description of the target groups, often including the geographic target markets.
TBC: Time based corrector. Used during copying or transferring from videotape to correct distortions caused by tape. Also used for color and brightness correction.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol): This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now available for every major kind of computer operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your computer must have TCP/IP software. See also IP Address.
Tearsheet: A publication page with an advertiser’s message, sent to the advertiser for approval or for checking.
Teaser: An advertisement that precedes the major portion of an advertising campaign, intended to build curiosity.
Telecine: The process of converting motion picture film to video.
Teleconference: A large meeting transmitted to a number of sites using satellite distribution.
Telemarketing: Selling by use of telephones, either initiating the calls or receiving orders.
Telephoto: Telephoto is the longest lens setting achieved by zooming all the way in to a scene.
Telepresence: A high-end videoconferencing system that simulates a live conference. Large monitors and loudspeakers positioned near the images of individuals speaking create the illusion of a live conference.
Teleprompter: A display device that prompts the person speaking with electronic visual text.
Telex: A piece of reporting equipment (earpiece) that allows a production team to feed information to a subject during filming.
Ten: Slang for a ten-second broadcast commercial announcement.
Testimonials: Real people or customers (not actors) respond truthfully on video or recorded audio to questions regarding their opinions or experience with a product, company, person, etc.
Test Recording: A brief recording made to test the correct operation of the equipment.
Theroa: A system used for the compression of digital video files.
Thirty: Slang for a 30-second broadcast commercial announcement.
Throw: A term referring to the switch over of narration, dialogue or reporting on-screen during a production.
Throwaways: Free shopping newspapers.
Thumbnail: The small picture that represents your entire online video.
Tie-in: See Cooperative advertising and Dealer tie-in.
Till Forbidden (TF): A newspaper insertion order abbreviation; run the advertisement until told to stop.
Tilt: This is a vertical camcorder rotation from a single axis on a tripod.
Time-Base Corrector: A device that corrects minor electronic errors on a prerecorded tape.
Time Buyer: The person who is responsible for purchasing advertising on radio and television (see Media buyer).
Timecode: A sequence of numeric codes generated to time and identify video clips. These are formatted to Hour:Minute:Second:Frame. A video camera, deck, or editing system can generate timecode.
Time Code Break: The common anomaly that can occur when there is an error in recording that results in the time code track not recording.
Timecode Window Burn or Timecode Burn: Timecode which has been added graphically to a video for easy logging, editing, or identification.
Time-Lapse: The presentation, compressed into a short segment, of events that took place over a long period of time.
Timeline: A Non-Linear Editing term used to refer to the rough outline of the completed production so far during the editing process.
Time Period Rating (TP): The rating for a particular broadcast time period, regardless of the program that was broadcast during that slot.
Time Sheet: A form used by a time buyer to keep track of the data on a media buy; also called a “buy sheet”: the form used to keep track of how advertising agency personnel use their time, for application in billing purposes.
Titles: Text on the video screen; sometimes referred to as character generator.
Title Safe Area: The inner 80% of a frame of video in which graphics and text are guaranteed to be seen by all viewers. Graphics and text in the outer 20% can be lost due to the curvature of traditional television sets.
To Be Announced (TBA): Used as a notification in broadcast program schedules.
Total Audience: The number of all the different homes or individuals who are tuned to a broadcast program for six minutes or longer.
Touch Screen: A video screen that viewers can touch in various areas to register their responses.
TP: An abbreviation for the occupation Technical Producer, which is similar to that of a Super Tech.
Tracking: Lateral video camera movement that travels with a moving subject.
Trade Paper: A specialized publication for a specific profession, trade, or industry; another term for some business publications.
Traditional Media: Any form of mass communication before the advent of digital media. Including: television, radio, newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and other print publications.
Traffic: Just as it sounds, traffic refers to the rate at which a site is visited. The term is general, but the best true measures of traffic are calculated in terms of unique visitors and page views.
Traffic Count: The number of persons who pass an outdoor panel location.
Training Video: A video, DVD, or online video used to train employees on the procedures and policies of the organization.
Transcript: A verbatim written account of everything said in a video or audio recording.
Translucent Powder Makeup: Makeup used to smooth and even out complexions as well as diminish the appearance of common blemishes such as wrinkles, acne, freckles, and moles. Particularly useful for counteracting the unflattering effects of HD video on close shots.
Treatment: A narrative description of the way a subject will be treated and a program will look when completed; an experimental condition.
Triaxial Cable (Triax): Similar to coax, but with the addition of an extra layer of insulation and a second conducting sheath. It provides greater bandwidth and rejects interference better than coax.
Trim Size: The final magazine page size, after it is trimmed.
Truck: The practice of moving a camera into or out of a shot on wheels instead of using the cameras zoom function.
Tube Mogul: A service that provides users with data analytics on video content.
Tungsten: A type of lighting that has a filament that results in an orange glow.
Turnover: The frequency with which the audience for a broadcast program changes over a period of time (see Audience turnover).
Tweak Up: To make fine adjustments.
Tweet: A post on Twitter.
Twenty: Slang for a 20-second broadcast commercial announcement also called a “chain break” or “station break”.
Twitter: An online news and social networking service where users post and interact with messages, called “tweets.” These messages were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, the limit was doubled to 280 characters for all languages except Japanese, Korean and Chinese.
Two-Page Spread: A single print advertisement that crosses two facing pages; also called “double spread” or “double truck” (see Center spread and double truck).
Two Shot: A camera view that includes two subjects.
U-Matic: Three-quarter inch video cassette tape or the type of player that uses that format.
Under: A term used in all aspects of video production referring to low light, quiet audio and faint images.
Unduplicated Audience: The total number of different people who were exposed to an advertisement or campaign through multiple insertions in more than one media vehicle (see Cumulative audience).
Unit: Advertising unit; the form and context in which an advertisement appears in a media vehicle; for example, full-page, half-page vertical, center spread, black and white, back cover, two colors; thirty-second commercial, ten-second ID, and so on.
Unique Users, Unique Visitors, Uniques, Unique Impressions: Unique users refers the the number of distinct individuals, as determined by IP address, user login, cookie, or some combination thereof, who visit a web site or view a banner ad. Most ad networks favor sites which generate a large number of unique impressions over sites whose users view large numbers of pages. A typical ad network will often not show more than five or six individual ads of any one type to a single user in a single browser session. Ad networks for larger sites, such as Tribal Fusion, require sites to be visited by at least 1,000unique visitors per day. Networks such as Burst and Fastclick require around 3,000 unique visitors per month.
Upfront Buying: Initial purchasing of network television advertising by firms wishing to have optimal selection of available programs; reserving advertising time on network television programs when the seasonal schedule is first announced; this tactic often requires longer schedules and higher prices.
Up-Link: A site sending signals up to a satellite.
Upload: The function of uploading video content onto YouTube and other video sharing websites.
Uploading Time: The time it takes for a video to upload onto YouTube.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator): The unique address of any Web document. May be keyed in a browser’s OPEN or LOCATION / GO TO box to retrieve a document. There is a logic the layout of a URL:
Usage Level: Classifying media audiences by the amount of the product or service they use.User: Refers to anyone who uses a computer.
USB Drives: Also known as “thumb drives”, these are popular, sturdy flash media storage devices a little bigger than a pen cap that plug into a computer’s USB port. USB stands for “Universal Serial Bus”.
USB/USB 2.0: An abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus. This refers to data cables and connectors that are used to connect digital equipment to cameras, computers and hard drives.
User Experience (UX): Refers to a person’s emotions and attitudes about using a particular product, system or service.
User Interface (UI): The space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine simultaneously feeds back information that aids the operators’ decision-making process.
VCR: Video cassette recorder. An old video recording device.
Vectorscope: A hardware monitor or software plug-in that enables the technical director to ensure that the colors coming from cameras are accurate.
Vehicle: An individual outlet of an advertising medium, such as a certain magazine or a specific broadcast station or program.
Verbal Release: This is a verbal agreement between filmmaker and subject that allows the filmmaker to use their image in their video.
Vertical Cume: The total number of different people who were tuned to successive broadcast programs.
Vertical Publication: A business or trade publication that is of interest to all levels or job functions within a single business or profession.
Vertical Saturation: Many broadcast commercial announcements scheduled throughout the course of a single day, generally designed to reach many different people, in an attempt to reach a high percentage of the broadcast audience.
Vet: The practice of checking over a script to ensure it is ready to be presented on camera.
VEVO: A video sharing platform set up in 2009.
VFX: Short for visual effects.
VHS: Video home system. The format of video tape and VCR that has been popular with consumers but is gradually being phased out.
Vicarious Travel: The simulation of a trip through interactive video.
Video Ads: YouTube’s in-video advertisements supported by True View ads as well as standard auto-play ads.
Video Blog: Often called a Vlog, a Video Blog is a type of video that acts as a visual representation traditional written blogs.
Video Conference: Two-way audio and video displayed at two or more locations for several people to speak to one another from different sites.
Video Editing Workstation: An ensemble of digital video editing computers, monitors, postproduction VCRs, DVD recordrs, and other equipment used for video postproduction and production of photomontages.
Video Format: The size, housing, and recording configuration of video tape or disc and the type of playback hardware associated with it, such as three-quarter inch or one-inch Type C.
Video Identification: This tool allows YouTube Partners to identify any of their copyrighted video content uploaded without their consent.
Video Journalist: Abbreviated as VJ, this refers to the occupation of filming or presenting video.
Video Noise: Undesirable static, dots, and graininess in a video picture. Most common when shooting in low light or with the gained turned up.
Video On Demand: Streaming videos that users view from a website whenever they want, as opposed to a webcast, where the video streams at certain times. Video on demand is often shortened to VOD.
Video Production: The process of planning, videotaping, editing, and other procedures to come up with a finished video or DVD.
Video Response: A YouTube function that allows users to comment on video content through video.
Video Sitemaps: Files that inform search engines what particular web page on a website an Internet video can be found.
Video Verité: A style of shooting in which the camera tries to capture real life without intrusion. Videodisc
A video recording in a recordlike disc format.
Viewer Control: Program design that assumes an individual viewer will control the program’s presentation.
Viewfinder: The small monitor on a camera giving the camera person the image of what is being shot.
Vignette: A special effect that shows images through shaped hole.
Viral Content: Content that is shared rapidly across the web.
Viral Video: Online videos that users send to one another via e-mails with a link to the video. Sometimes written comments accompany the video.
Visible Measures: A third party video analysis service.
Visits: The number of distinct visits to a web site within a specified time period, such as one day or one month. Visits are an imprecise term and numbers may vary considerably depending on the type of calculation used, but many log and statistical applications define a visit as a single browser session by a single IP address. Multiple browser sessions by the same visitor will often be counted as a single visit if the time frame within which they occur is short. Because of the often arbitrary and imprecise methods used to determine visit counts, the term is of comparatively little statistical value. Page views and unique visitor counts, computed individually and in combination, are far more useful in determining the relative popularity of a web page or web site.
Visual FX: General term used to describe a wide array of special effects accomplished using computer software such as Adobe After Effects or Apple’s Motion. Spinning metallic text, muzzle fire added for a fake gun, or digital snow are all examples of common visual FX.
Visual Literacy: The ability to express and interpret ideas visually rahter than verbally.
Viz: The industry abbreviation for Visuals.
VLS: Very long shot. There is no precise definition about what is very long other than that it should include the whole human figure, the whole action, and a good view of the background.
Voice Over: Refers to the audio that is presented over images or video from a subject who is typically not present in the images/video themselves.
VO: Short for voice over.
VOIP: – (Voice Over IP) A specification and various technologies used to allow making telephone calls over IP networks, especially the Internet. Just as modems allow computers to connect to the Internet over regular telephone lines, VOIP technology allows people to talk over Internet connections. Costs for VOIP calls can be a lot lower than for traditional telephone calls. Because the IP networks are packet-switched this allows for vastly different ways of handling connections and more efficient use of network resources.
VTR: Video tape recorder.
Walkthrough: Another word for a rehearsal, practice or Dry Run.
Wallpaper: A reporting slang term used to refer to pictures in a film sequence that have little connection, and add little benefit to the script or story at hand.
WAN: Wide area network.
Warm Cards: Pale green or blue cards that give your image a warmer look when you white-balance your camera on them.
Waste Circulation: The readers of a publication who are not prospects for the product or service being advertised; advertisement distribution in an area in which the product or service is not distributed.
Watch Page: The YouTube page that display the full-sized video.
Watermark: A low opacity graphic or text placed on top of a video or graphic to prevent re-use without permission of the creator.
Watts: A unit used to measure electricity.
Waveform Monitor: A hardware device or software plug-in that allows the camera technician to accurately adjust the brightness and contrast with either lighting or the camera’s internal white and black levels.
Webcam: A video camera often built in to PCs, Laptops and Macs used to record one-to-one videos, video phone calls and video blogs.
Webcast Video: Video that may be viewed online at a scheduled time.
WebM: A system used for the compression of electronic video files.
Web Page: A document designed for viewing in a web browser. Typically written in HTML. A web site is made of one or more web pages.
Website Layout: Before website development begins, typicially a layout is designed firsthand, serving as a blueprint for the website’s development. Once a look and feel of the website is completed, the website typicially enters the development phase.
Webinar: Short for Web-based seminar, a presentation, lecture, workshop or seminar that is transmitted over the Web. A key feature of a Webinar is its interactive elements — the ability to give, receive and discuss information. Contrast with Webcast, in which the data transmission is one way and does not allow interaction between the presenter and the audience.
WGA: Writers Guild of America.
Whip Pan: A rapid pan movement that often blurs the image.
Whip Zoom: A quick manual zoom move in or out that’s so fast that it causes the image to blur in the middle of the move until the lens rests on the final shot. This movie is common in reality, sports, music videos and other high energy productions.
White Balance: A camera function that adjusts your image to the correct color temperature.
White Cards: Pure white card use as a reference to set a camera’s white balance.
Wide Angle: This term is somewhat loose. It generally means a long shot or an establishing shot that shows the whole scene.
Wide Shot: A video clip shot from a distance away, allowing the viewer to see the entire subject. If the subject is a person, you’ll see him/her from head to foot.
Widget: A term for a website feature or script that serves a specific purpose, such as displaying weather, or giving directions (i.e. google maps). Multiple widgets can be added to a website.
Wild Sound: Ambient, natural sounds that occur in any filming environment.
Wind Jammer: A faux fur covering used to minimize ambient noise from Boom mics.
Window Dub: A copy of a master video, usually on DVD, where the time code numbers are displayed in a window on the monitor.
Windows Media Player: A computer program from Microsoft that allows for audio/video to be displayed on home and office computers. The file extension is .wmv.
Wipe: To erase a digital media card by reformatting it which clears all video and or audio clips from the card. This function is usually found in the cameras menu and likely at the very bottom of the menu set. Never wipe a card until you’ve verified your footage by playing it back and listening to it.
Wireless Microphone: A microphone that does not need a cord. Usually it consists of a clip-on microphone attached to a small belt pack transmitter. At the camera is the receiver portion of the system.
Word of Mouth Marketing: Communication about a product or service from person to person that is actively encouraged by organizations.
Workflow: An orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information.
Wrap Out: Referring to finishing a shoot and packing equipment away.
XLR: A commonly used high quality cable that is used for professional sound applications.
XML: Extensible Markup Language, a dilution for Web page use of SGML (Standard General Markup Language), which is not readily viewable in ordinary browsers and is difficult to apply to Web pages. XML is very useful (among other things) for pages emerging from databases and other applications where parts of the page are standardized and must reappear many times. See XHTML.
Xsan: An enterprise shared disk file system that encourages collaborative postproduction. It allows several computers to read and write to the same storage volume at the same time.
YCbCr: A way of encoding RGB color. Y is the luminance or the black and white element of the signal. Cb is the color difference, which is represented as the color blue minus the luminance (B-Y). C5 is the red minus the luminance (R-Y). In analog video it is referred to as “YUV.”
Yield: In the context of banner ads, yield indicates the percentage of clicks divided by impressions for an ad on a given page (see click-through rate).
YouTube: An American video-sharing website.
Zeppelin: A large shield used to protect Boom mics from ambient noise.
Zip File: Large files that have been compressed to make them easier to send over the internet.
Zoom: This is the variance of focal length from wide-angle to telephoto focus on video cameras to allow for a zoom in or zoom out of a frame.